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  1. Programmable 3D shape morphing of stimuli-responsive hydrogels is of great interest for the fabrication of soft actuators and robots. The corporation of hydrogel matrices and functional additives is discussed in this review.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 7, 2024
  2. Monoligated and bis-ligated CCC-NHC pincer Fe complexes with n-butyl substituents have been synthesized by the Zr metalation/transmetalation route. Both the direct metalation/transmetalation and transmetalation from the isolated (BuCiCiCBu)ZrNMe2Cl2, 3, yielded the octahedrally coordinated Fe(III) bis-ligated complex [(BuCiCiCBu)2Fe]Cl, 2a. Transmetalation from in situ and isolated (BuCiCiCBu)ZrCl3, 5, in the presence of excess TMSCl and 1 equiv of the Fe source yielded the monoligated (BuCiCiCBu)FeCl2, 4. Conditions that convert [(BuCiCiCBu)2Fe]+, 2, to (BuCiCiCBu)FeCl2, 4, complex have been found. Characterization included 1H NMR, UV−visible, femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies, TDDFT computations, and mass spectroscopy along with X-ray crystallographic structure determinations. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 12, 2025
  3. Pericentromeric heterochromatin is highly enriched for repetitive sequences prone to aberrant recombination. Previous studies showed that homologous recombination (HR) repair is uniquely regulated in this domain to enable ‘safe’ repair while preventing aberrant recombination. In Drosophila cells, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) relocalize to the nuclear periphery through nuclear actin-driven directed motions before recruiting the strand invasion protein Rad51 and completing HR repair. End-joining (EJ) repair also occurs with high frequency in heterochromatin of fly tissues, but how alternative EJ (alt-EJ) pathways operate in heterochromatin remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we induce DSBs in single euchromatic and heterochromatic sites using a new system that combines the DR-white reporter and I-SceI expression in spermatogonia of flies. Using this approach, we detect higher frequency of HR repair in heterochromatin, relative to euchromatin. Further, sequencing of mutagenic repair junctions reveals the preferential use of different EJ pathways across distinct euchromatic and heterochromatic sites. Interestingly, synthesis-dependent microhomology-mediated end joining (SD-MMEJ) appears differentially regulated in the two domains, with a preferential use of motifs close to the cut site in heterochromatin relative to euchromatin, resulting in smaller deletions. Together, these studies establish a new approach to study repair outcomes in fly tissues, and support the conclusion that heterochromatin uses more HR and less mutagenic EJ repair relative to euchromatin. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 5, 2024
  4. The nitrogen cycle needed for scaled agriculture relies on energy- and carbon-intensive processes and generates nitrate-containing wastewater. Here we focus on an alternative approach—the electrified co-electrolysis of nitrate and CO2 to synthesize urea. When this is applied to industrial wastewater or agricultural runoff, the approach has the potential to enable low-carbon-intensity urea production while simultaneously providing wastewater denitrification. We report a strategy that increases selectivity to urea using a hybrid catalyst: two classes of site independently stabilize the key intermediates needed in urea formation, *CO2NO2 and *COOHNH2, via a relay catalysis mechanism. A Faradaic efficiency of 75% at wastewater-level nitrate concentrations (1,000 ppm NO3− [N]) is achieved on Zn/Cu catalysts. The resultant catalysts show a urea production rate of 16 µmol h−1 cm−2. Life-cycle assessment indicates greenhouse gas emissions of 0.28 kg CO2e per kg urea for the electrochemical route, compared to 1.8 kg CO2e kg−1 for the present-day route. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  5. Oshman, Rotem (Ed.)
    Byzantine quorum systems provide higher throughput than proof-of-work and incur modest energy consumption. Further, their modern incarnations incorporate personalized and heterogeneous trust. Thus, they are emerging as an appealing candidate for global financial infrastructure. However, since their quorums are not uniform across processes anymore, the properties that they should maintain to support abstractions such as reliable broadcast and consensus are not well-understood. It has been shown that the two properties quorum intersection and availability are necessary. In this paper, we prove that they are not sufficient. We then define the notion of quorum subsumption, and show that the three conditions together are sufficient: we present reliable broadcast and consensus protocols, and prove their correctness for quorum systems that provide the three properties. 
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