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  1. In this study, a polarimetric radar forward model operator was developed for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that was based on a scattering algorithm using the T-matrix methodology. Three microphysics schemes—Thompson, Morrison 2-moment, and Milbrandt-Yau 2-moment—were supported in the operator. This radar forward operator used the microphysics, thermodynamic, and wind fields from WRF model forecasts to compute horizontal reflectivity, radial velocity, and polarimetric variables including differential reflectivity (ZDR) and specific differential phase (KDP) for S-band radar. A case study with severe convective storms was used to examine the accuracy of the radar operator. Output from the radar operator was compared to real radar observations from the Weather Surveillance Radar–1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radar. The results showed that the radar forward operator generated realistic polarimetric signatures. The distribution of polarimetric variables agreed well with the hydrometer properties produced by different microphysics schemes. Similar to the observed polarimetric signatures, radar operator output showed ZDR and KDP columns from low-to-mid troposphere, reflecting the large amount of rain within strong updrafts. The Thompson scheme produced a better simulation for the hail storm with a ZDR hole to indicate the existence of graupel in the low troposphere. 
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  2. In this study, a polarimetric radar forward model operator was developed for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that was based on a scattering algorithm using the T-matrix methodology. Three microphysics schemes—Thompson, Morrison 2-moment, and Milbrandt-Yau 2-moment—were supported in the operator. This radar forward operator used the microphysics, thermodynamic, and wind fields from WRF model forecasts to compute horizontal reflectivity, radial velocity, and polarimetric variables including differential reflectivity (ZDR) and specific differential phase (KDP) for S-band radar. A case study with severe convective storms was used to examine the accuracy of the radar operator. Output from the radar operator was compared to real radar observations from the Weather Surveillance Radar–1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radar. The results showed that the radar forward operator generated realistic polarimetric signatures. The distribution of polarimetric variables agreed well with the hydrometer properties produced by different microphysics schemes. Similar to the observed polarimetric signatures, radar operator output showed ZDR and KDP columns from low-to-mid troposphere, reflecting the large amount of rain within strong updrafts. The Thompson scheme produced a better simulation for the hail storm with a ZDR hole to indicate the existence of graupel in the low troposphere. 
    more » « less