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  1. We propose a V-shape PSF generated from double axicon lenses in the collection path of wide-field microscopes for 3D high-resolution imaging with an extended depth of field.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
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  5. Abstract

    We investigate the structure of the continental lithosphere by combining two approaches: a systematic survey of abrupt changes in seismic properties detected byP‐to‐Sconverted body waves and an integrated geophysical‐petrological inversion for temperature and density in the upper mantle. We refine the global thermo‐chemical model WINTERC‐G in eastern North America by including detailed regional information on the crust into petrological inversions and combine it with the upper mantle layering beneath eastern North America yielded by anisotropy‐aware receiver‐function analysis. Eastern North America's Archean, Proterozoic and Paleozoic lithospheres show an excellent agreement between the depth to the 1,300°C isotherm that bounds the lithosphere and the depth range where converted waves detect abrupt changes in seismic properties. Boundaries with these abrupt changes reside within the rigid mechanical lithosphere and are uncommon in the convecting mantle beneath it. The boundaries include both impedance increases and decreases with depth, as well as anisotropy changes, and must have developed over the course of the assembly and evolution of the lithosphere. In the asthenosphere below, such heterogeneities appear to have been largely mixed out by convection. The existence of abundant interfaces with diverse origin can account for the commonly observed scattered signals from within the continental lithospheremore »and presents an alternative to the end‐member concept of the mid‐lithospheric discontinuity as a ubiquitous feature with a uniform origin. Generally, we can define continental lithosphere as a region of conductive heat transport and steep geotherm that is characterized by pervasive internal layering of density, elastic moduli and texture.

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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  7. Building an accurate computational model can clarify the basis of feeding behaviors in Aplysia californica. We introduce a specific circuitry model that emphasizes feedback integration. The circuitry uses a Synthetic Nervous System, a biologically plausible neural model, with motor neurons and buccal ganglion interneurons organized into 9 subnetworks realizing functions essential to feeding control during the protraction and retraction phases of feeding. These subnetworks are combined with a cerebral ganglion layer that controls transitions between feeding behaviors. This Synthetic Nervous System is connected to a simplified biomechanical model of Aplysia and afferent pathways provide proprioceptive and exteroceptive feedback to the controller. The feedback allows the model to coordinate and control its behaviors in response to the external environment. We find that the model can qualitatively reproduce multifunctional feeding behaviors. The kinematic and dynamic responses of the model also share similar features with experimental data. The results suggest that this neuromechanical model has predictive ability and could be used for generating or testing hypotheses about Aplysia feeding control.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 2, 2023
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  10. The subphylum Saccharomycotina is a lineage in the fungal phylum Ascomycota that exhibits levels of genomic diversity similar to those of plants and animals. The Saccharomycotina consist of more than 1 200 known species currently divided into 16 families, one order, and one class. Species in this subphylum are ecologically and metabolically diverse and include important opportunistic human pathogens, as well as species important in biotechnological applications. Many traits of biotechnological interest are found in closely related species and often restricted to single phylogenetic clades. However, the biotechnological potential of most yeast species remains unexplored. Although the subphylum Saccharomycotina has much higher rates of genome sequence evolution than its sister subphylum, Pezizomycotina , it contains only one class compared to the 16 classes in Pezizomycotina . The third subphylum of Ascomycota , the Taphrinomycotina , consists of six classes and has approximately 10 times fewer species than the Saccharomycotina . These data indicate that the current classification of all these yeasts into a single class and a single order is an underappreciation of their diversity. Our previous genome-scale phylogenetic analyses showed that the Saccharomycotina contains 12 major and robustly supported phylogenetic clades; seven of these are current families ( Lipomycetaceae ,more »Trigonopsidaceae , Alloascoideaceae , Pichiaceae , Phaffomycetaceae , Saccharomycodaceae , and Saccharomycetaceae ), one comprises two current families ( Dipodascaceae and Trichomonascaceae ), one represents the genus Sporopachydermia , and three represent lineages that differ in their translation of the CUG codon (CUG-Ala, CUG-Ser1, and CUG-Ser2). Using these analyses in combination with relative evolutionary divergence and genome content analyses, we propose an updated classification for the Saccharomycotina , including seven classes and 12 orders that can be diagnosed by genome content. This updated classification is consistent with the high levels of genomic diversity within this subphylum and is necessary to make the higher rank classification of the Saccharomycotina more comparable to that of other fungi, as well as to communicate efficiently on lineages that are not yet formally named.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 25, 2024