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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
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  4. Adversarial Examples Detection (AED) is a crucial defense technique against adversarial attacks and has drawn increasing attention from the Natural Language Processing (NLP) community. Despite the surge of new AED methods, our studies show that existing methods heavily rely on a shortcut to achieve good performance. In other words, current search-based adversarial attacks in NLP stop once model predictions change, and thus most adversarial examples generated by those attacks are located near model decision boundaries. To surpass this shortcut and fairly evaluate AED methods, we propose to test AED methods with Far Boundary (FB) adversarial examples. Existing methods show worse than random guess performance under this scenario. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new technique, ADDMU, adversary detection with data and model uncertainty, which combines two types of uncertainty estimation for both regular and FB adversarial example detection. Our new method outperforms previous methods by 3.6 and 6.0 AUC points under each scenario. Finally, our analysis shows that the two types of uncertainty provided by ADDMU can be leveraged to characterize adversarialexamples and identify the ones that contribute most to model’s robustness in adversarial training. 
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  5. Free monads (and their variants) have become a popular general-purpose tool for representing the semantics of effectful programs in proof assistants. These data structures support the compositional definition of semantics parameterized by uninterpreted events, while admitting a rich equational theory of equivalence. But monads are not the only way to structure effectful computation, why should we limit ourselves? In this paper, inspired by applicative functors, selective functors, and other structures, we define a collection of data structures and theories, which we call program adverbs, that capture a variety of computational patterns. Program adverbs are themselves composable, allowing them to be used to specify the semantics of languages with multiple computation patterns. We use program adverbs as the basis for a new class of semantic embeddings called Tlön embeddings. Compared with embeddings based on free monads, Tlön embeddings allow more flexibility in computational modeling of effects, while retaining more information about the program's syntactic structure. 
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  6. Lazy evaluation is a powerful tool for functional programmers. It enables the concise expression of on-demand computation and a form of compositionality not available under other evaluation strategies. However, the stateful nature of lazy evaluation makes it hard to analyze a program's computational cost, either informally or formally. In this work, we present a novel and simple framework for formally reasoning about lazy computation costs based on a recent model of lazy evaluation: clairvoyant call-by-value. The key feature of our framework is its simplicity, as expressed by our definition of the clairvoyance monad. This monad is both simple to define (around 20 lines of Coq) and simple to reason about. We show that this monad can be effectively used to mechanically reason about the computational cost of lazy functional programs written in Coq. 
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  7. This paper studies computational methods for quasi-stationary distributions (QSDs). We first proposed a data-driven solver that solves Fokker–Planck equations for QSDs. Similar to the case of Fokker–Planck equations for invariant probability measures, we set up an optimization problem that minimizes the distance from a low-accuracy reference solution, under the constraint of satisfying the linear relation given by the discretized Fokker–Planck operator. Then we use coupling method to study the sensitivity of a QSD against either the change of boundary condition or the diffusion coefficient. The 1-Wasserstein distance between a QSD and the corresponding invariant probability measure can be quantitatively estimated. Some numerical results about both computation of QSDs and their sensitivity analysis are provided. 
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  8. We conducted a user study with 380 Android users, profiling them according to two key privacy behaviors: the number of apps installed, and the Dangerous permissions granted to those apps. We identified four unique privacy profiles: 1) Privacy Balancers (49.74% of participants), 2) Permission Limiters (28.68%), 3) App Limiters (14.74%), and 4) the Privacy Unconcerned (6.84%). App and Permission Limiters were significantly more concerned about perceived surveillance than Privacy Balancers and the Privacy Unconcerned. App Limiters had the lowest number of apps installed on their devices with the lowest intention of using apps and sharing information with them, compared to Permission Limiters who had the highest number of apps installed and reported higher intention to share information with apps. The four profiles reflect the differing privacy management strategies, perceptions, and intentions of Android users that go beyond the binary decision to share or withhold information via mobile apps. 
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  9. Transactional objects combine the performance of classical concurrent objects with the high-level programmability of transactional memory. However, verifying the correctness of transactional objects is tricky, requiring reasoning simultaneously about classical concurrent objects, which guarantee the atomicity of individual methods—the property known as linearizability—and about software-transactional-memory libraries, which guarantee the atomicity of user-defined sequences of method calls—or serializability. We present a formal-verification framework called C4, built up from the familiar notion of linearizability and its compositional properties, that allows proof of both kinds of libraries, along with composition of theorems from both styles to prove correctness of applications or further libraries. We apply the framework in a significant case study, verifying a transactional set object built out of both classical and transactional components following the technique of transactional predication ; the proof is modular, reasoning separately about the transactional and nontransactional parts of the implementation. Central to our approach is the use of syntactic transformers on interaction trees —i.e., transactional libraries that transform client code to enforce particular synchronization disciplines. Our framework and case studies are mechanized in Coq. 
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