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  1. Although the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been widely used to assess the environmental impacts of growing perennial grasses for bioenergy production, its utility is limited by not explicitly accounting for shoot and root biomass development. In this study, we integrated the DAYCENT model's grass growth algorithms into SWAT (SWAT–GRASSD) and further modified it by considering the impact of leaf area index (LAI) on potential biomass production (SWAT–GRASSM). Based on testing at eight sites in the US Midwest, we found that SWAT–GRASSM generally outperformed SWAT and SWAT–GRASSD in simulating switchgrass biomass yield and the seasonal development of LAI. Additionally, SWAT–GRASSM can more realistically represent root development, which is key for the allocation of accumulated biomass and nutrients between aboveground and belowground biomass pools. These improvements are critical for credible assessment of agronomic and environmental impacts of growing perennial grasses for biomass production. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 21, 2024
  5. Abstract

    Most climate models still suffer large warm and dry summer biases in the central United States (CUS). As a solution, we improved cumulus parameterization to represent 1) the lifting effect of small-scale rising motions associated with Great Plains low-level jets and midtropospheric perturbations by defining the cloud base at the level of condensation, 2) the constraint of the cumulus entrainment rate depending on the boundary layer depth, and 3) the temperature-dependent cloud-to-rainwater conversion rate. These improvements acted to (i) trigger mesoscale convective systems in unfavorable environmental conditions to enhance total rainfall amount, (ii) lower cloud base and increase cloud depth to increase low-level clouds and reduce surface shortwave radiation, (iii) suppress penetrative cumuli from shallow boundary layers to remedy the overestimation of precipitation frequency, and (iv) increase water detrainment to form sufficient cirrus clouds and balanced outgoing longwave radiation. Much of these effects were nonlocal and nonlinear, where more frequent but weaker convective rainfall led to stronger (and sometimes more frequent) large-scale precipitation remotely. Together, they produced consistently heavier precipitation and colder temperature with a realistic atmospheric energy balance, essentially eliminating the CUS warm and dry biases through robust physical mechanisms.

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  6. Abstract

    Most climate models in phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) still suffer pronounced warm and dry summer biases in the central United States (CUS), even in high-resolution simulations. We found that the cloud base definition in the cumulus parameterization was the dominant factor determining the spread of the biases among models and those defining cloud base at the lifting condensation level (LCL) performed the best. To identify the underlying mechanisms, we developed a physically based analytical bias model (ABM) to capture the key feedback processes of land–atmosphere coupling. The ABM has significant explanatory power, capturing 80% variance of temperature and precipitation biases among all models. Our ABM analysis via counterfactual experiments indicated that the biases are attributed mostly by surface downwelling longwave radiation errors and second by surface net shortwave radiation errors, with the former 2–5 times larger. The effective radiative forcing from these two errors as weighted by their relative contributions induces runaway temperature and precipitation feedbacks, which collaborate to cause CUS summer warm and dry biases. The LCL cumulus reduces the biases through two key mechanisms: it produces more clouds and less precipitable water, which reduce radiative energy input for both surface heating and evapotranspiration to cause a cooler and wetter soil; it produces more rainfall and wetter soil conditions, which suppress the positive evapotranspiration–precipitation feedback to damp the warm and dry bias coupling. Most models using non-LCL schemes underestimate both precipitation and cloud amounts, which amplify the positive feedback to cause significant biases.

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  7. Today’s large-scale scientific applications running on high-performance computing (HPC) systems generate vast data volumes. Thus, data compression is becoming a critical technique to mitigate the storage burden and data-movement cost. However, existing lossy compressors for scientific data cannot achieve a high compression ratio and throughput simultaneously, hindering their adoption in many applications requiring fast compression, such as in-memory compression. To this end, in this work, we develop a fast and high-ratio error-bounded lossy compressor on GPUs for scientific data (called FZ-GPU). Specifically, we first design a new compression pipeline that consists of fully parallelized quantization, bitshuffle, and our newly designed fast encoding. Then, we propose a series of deep architectural optimizations for each kernel in the pipeline to take full advantage of CUDA architectures. We propose a warp-level optimization to avoid data conflicts for bit-wise operations in bitshuffle, maximize shared memory utilization, and eliminate unnecessary data movements by fusing different compression kernels. Finally, we evaluate FZ-GPU on two NVIDIA GPUs (i.e., A100 and RTX A4000) using six representative scientific datasets from SDRBench. Results on the A100 GPU show that FZ-GPU achieves an average speedup of 4.2× over cuSZ and an average speedup of 37.0× over a multi-threaded CPU implementation of our algorithm under the same error bound. FZ-GPU also achieves an average speedup of 2.3× and an average compression ratio improvement of 2.0× over cuZFP under the same data distortion. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 16, 2024
  8. Abstract

    Climate change is impacting global crop productivity, and agricultural land suitability is predicted to significantly shift in the future. Responses to changing conditions and increasing yield variability can range from altered management strategies to outright land use conversions that may have significant environmental and socioeconomic ramifications. However, the extent to which agricultural land use changes in response to variations in climate is unclear at larger scales. Improved understanding of these dynamics is important since land use changes will have consequences not only for food security but also for ecosystem health, biodiversity, carbon storage, and regional and global climate. In this study, we combine land use products derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer with climate reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis v5 to analyze correspondence between changes in cropland and changes in temperature and water availability from 2001 to 2018. While climate trends explained little of the variability in land cover changes, increasing temperature, extreme heat days, potential evaporation, and drought severity were associated with higher levels of cropland loss. These patterns were strongest in regions with more cropland change, and generally reflected underlying climate suitability—they were amplified in hotter and drier regions, and reversed direction in cooler and wetter regions. At national scales, climate response patterns varied significantly, reflecting the importance of socioeconomic, political, and geographic factors, as well as differences in adaptation strategies. This global-scale analysis does not attempt to explain local mechanisms of change but identifies climate-cropland patterns that exist in aggregate and may be hard to perceive at local scales. It is intended to supplement regional studies, providing further context for locally-observed phenomena and highlighting patterns that require further analysis.

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