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  1. Faculty often utilize homework problems as a means to help students practice problem solving. Recently, with textbook solutions manuals being freely available online, students are prone to copying/cheating, which can severely limit improvements in problem solving. One hypothesis is that YouTube problems could serve as alternatives to textbook problems to significantly reduce cheating and promote better problem solving. YouTube problems are student-written problems that were inspired by events in a video publicly available online. While our previous studies have showcased positive attitudes related to engineering, high engagement, and rigor of the YouTube problems, the current study examines a subset ofmore »problems related to one major course topic, namely vapor-liquid equilibrium. The cohorts include engineering students from a public university who were assigned homework problems as part of a material and energy balance course. Two constructs were explored: problem solving and perception of problem difficulty. The study adopted an established and validated rubric to quantify performance in relevant stages of problem solving, including problem identification, representation, organization, calculation, solution completion, and solution accuracy. While problem solving can be influenced by perception of problem difficulty, the widely used NASA Task Load Index was adopted to measure the problem rigor. This paper will compare textbook and YouTube problem with respect to overall problem-solving ability as well as in each stage of problem solving. Furthermore, we will investigate whether disparities exist in students’ perceptions when solving vapor-liquid equilibrium problems.« less
  2. Complex problem-solving is a vital skill prevalent to thrive in the workforce along with creativity and conceptual thinking. Homework problems allow engineering students to practice problem solving, and writing new problems can be a creative process for students. Our previous research found that implementing alternative, student-written homework problems, referred to as YouTube problems, led to better learning attitudes. YouTube problems are course related; homework-quality problems generated by reverse engineering publicly available videos. Comparing learning experiences of students solving YouTube versus Textbook problems is the focus of the current study. Impacts of solving YouTube problems are examined based on perception ofmore »difficulty as well as students’ problem-solving skills displayed by students. To enable testing, students were assigned one textbook and three YouTube problems. Perception of problem difficulty across problems was examined using the NASA Task Load Index. Additionally, problem solving aptitudes while solving homework problems was assessed using a previously validated rubric called PROCESS: Problem definition, Representing the problem, Organizing the information, Calculations, Solution completion, and Solution accuracy. A new case study compares Textbook and YouTube problems related to reacting systems with recycle, which is one of the most difficult course concepts. A correlation between problem rigor and problem solving was found.« less
  3. Abstract The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hardmore »scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Abstract The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed tomore »meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  7. Abstract The energy response of the ATLAS calorimeter is measured for single charged pions with transverse momentum in the range $$10more »situ single-particle measurements. The calorimeter response to single-pions is observed to be overestimated by $${\sim }2\%$$ ∼ 2 % across a large part of the $$p_{\text {T}}$$ p T spectrum in the central region and underestimated by $${\sim }4\%$$ ∼ 4 % in the endcaps in the ATLAS simulation. The uncertainties in the measurements are $${\lesssim }1\%$$ ≲ 1 % for $$15« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  8. A bstract Searches are conducted for new spin-0 or spin-1 bosons using events where a Higgs boson with mass 125 GeV decays into four leptons ( ℓ = e , μ ). This decay is presumed to occur via an intermediate state which contains two on-shell, promptly decaying bosons: H → XX/ZX → 4 ℓ , where the new boson X has a mass between 1 and 60 GeV. The search uses pp collision data collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC with an integrated luminosity of 139 fb − 1 at a centre-of-mass energy $$ \sqrt{s} $$ smore »= 13 TeV. The data are found to be consistent with Standard Model expectations. Limits are set on fiducial cross sections and on the branching ratio of the Higgs boson to decay into XX/ZX , improving those from previous publications by a factor between two and four. Limits are also set on mixing parameters relevant in extensions of the Standard Model containing a dark sector where X is interpreted to be a dark boson.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  9. Abstract This paper presents a measurement of the electroweak production of two jets in association with a $$Z\gamma $$ Z γ pair, with the Z boson decaying into two neutrinos. It also presents a search for invisible or partially invisible decays of a Higgs boson with a mass of 125  $$\text {GeV}$$ GeV produced through vector-boson fusion with a photon in the final state. These results use data from LHC proton–proton collisions at $$\sqrt{s}$$ s = 13  $$\text {TeV}$$ TeV collected with the ATLAS detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139  $$\hbox {fb}^{-1}$$ fb - 1 . Themore »event signature, shared by all benchmark processes considered for the measurements and searches, is characterized by a significant amount of unbalanced transverse momentum and a photon in the final state, in addition to a pair of forward jets. Electroweak $$Z\gamma $$ Z γ production in association with two jets is observed in this final state with a significance of 5.2 (5.1 expected) standard deviations. The measured fiducial cross-section for this process is $$1.31\pm 0.29$$ 1.31 ± 0.29  fb. An observed (expected) upper limit of 0.37 ( $$0.34^{+0.15}_{-0.10}$$ 0 . 34 - 0.10 + 0.15 ) at 95% confidence level is set on the branching ratio of a 125  $$\text {GeV}$$ GeV Higgs boson to invisible particles, assuming the Standard Model production cross-section. The signature is also interpreted in the context of decays of a Higgs boson into a photon and a dark photon. An observed (expected) 95% CL upper limit on the branching ratio for this decay is set at 0.018 ( $$0.017^{+0.007}_{-0.005}$$ 0 . 017 - 0.005 + 0.007 ), assuming the Standard Model production cross-section for a 125  $$\text {GeV}$$ GeV Higgs boson.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  10. Abstract During LHC Run 2 (2015–2018) the ATLAS Level-1 topological trigger allowed efficient data-taking by the ATLAS experiment at luminosities up to 2.1 $$\times $$ × 10 $$^{34}$$ 34  cm $$^{-2}$$ - 2 s $$^{-1}$$ - 1 , which exceeds the design value by a factor of two. The system was installed in 2016 and operated in 2017 and 2018. It uses Field Programmable Gate Array processors to select interesting events by placing kinematic and angular requirements on electromagnetic clusters, jets, $$\tau $$ τ -leptons, muons and the missing transverse energy. It allowed to significantly improve the background event rejection andmore »signal event acceptance, in particular for Higgs and B -physics processes.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023