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  1. An electrically conductive metal typically transmits or absorbs a spin current. Here, we report on evidence that interfacing two metal thin films can suppress spin transmission and absorption. We examine spin pumping in spin-source/spacer/spin-sink heterostructures, where the spacer consists of metallic Cu and Cr thin films. The Cu/Cr spacer largely suppresses spin pumping—i.e., neither transmitting nor absorbing a significant amount of spin current—even though Cu or Cr alone transmits a sizable spin current. The antiferromagnetism of Cr is not essential for the suppression of spin pumping, as we observe similar suppression with Cu/V spacers with V as a nonmagnetic analog of Cr. We speculate that diverse combinations of spin-transparent metals may form interfaces that suppress spin pumping, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our work may stimulate a new perspective on spin transport in metallic multilayers.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  2. In ferromagnetic metals, transverse spin currents are thought to be absorbed via dephasing—i.e., destructive interference of spins precessing about the strong exchange field. Yet, due to the ultrashort coherence length of ≈1 nm in typical ferromagnetic thin films, it is difficult to distinguish dephasing in the bulk from spin-flip scattering at the interface. Here, to assess which mechanism dominates, we examine transverse spin-current absorption in ferromagnetic NiCu alloy films with reduced exchange fields. We observe that the coherence length increases with decreasing Curie temperature, as weaker dephasing in the film bulk slows down spin absorption. Moreover, nonmagnetic Cu impurities do not diminish the efficiency of spin-transfer torque from the absorbed spin current. Our findings affirm that the transverse spin current is predominantly absorbed by dephasing inside the nanometer-thick ferromagnetic metals, even with high impurity contents.

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  6. Abstract

    Small‐scale robots capable of remote active steering and navigation offer great potential for biomedical applications. However, the current design and manufacturing procedure impede their miniaturization and integration of various diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities. Herein, submillimeter fiber robots that can integrate navigation, sensing, and modulation functions are presented. These fiber robots are fabricated through a scalable thermal drawing process at a speed of 4 meters per minute, which enables the integration of ferromagnetic, electrical, optical, and microfluidic composite with an overall diameter of as small as 250 µm and a length of as long as 150 m. The fiber tip deflection angle can reach up to 54ounder a uniform magnetic field of 45 mT. These fiber robots can navigate through complex and constrained environments, such as artificial vessels and brain phantoms. Moreover, Langendorff mouse hearts model, glioblastoma micro platforms, and in vivo mouse models are utilized to demonstrate the capabilities of sensing electrophysiology signals and performing a localized treatment. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the fiber robots can serve as endoscopes with embedded waveguides. These fiber robots provide a versatile platform for targeted multimodal detection and treatment at hard‐to‐reach locations in a minimally invasive and remotely controllable manner.

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