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    Very metal-poor stars ($\rm [Fe/H] \lt -2$) in the Milky Way are fossil records of early chemical evolution and the assembly and structure of the Galaxy. However, they are rare and hard to find. Gaia DR3 has provided over 200 million low-resolution (R ≈ 50) XP spectra, which provides an opportunity to greatly increase the number of candidate metal-poor stars. In this work, we utilize the XGBoost classification algorithm to identify ∼200 000 very metal-poor star candidates. Compared to past work, we increase the candidate metal-poor sample by about an order of magnitude, with comparable or better purity than past studies. First, we develop three classifiers for bright stars (BP < 16). They are Classifier-T (for Turn-off stars), Classifier-GC (for Giant stars with high completeness), and Classifier-GP (for Giant stars with high purity) with expected purity of 52 per cent/45 per cent/76 per cent and completeness of 32 per cent/93 per cent/66 per cent, respectively. These three classifiers obtained a total of 11 000/111 000/44 000 bright metal-poor candidates. We apply model-T and model-GP on faint stars (BP > 16) and obtain 38 000/41 000 additional metal-poor candidates with purity 29 per cent/52 per cent, respectively. We make our metal-poor star catalogues publicly available, for further exploration of the metal-poor Milky Way.

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    We present the first detailed chemical-abundance analysis of stars from the dwarf-galaxy stellar stream Wukong/LMS-1 covering a wide metallicity range ($-3.5 \lt \rm [Fe/H] \lesssim -1.3$). We find abundance patterns that are effectively indistinguishable from the bulk of Indus and Jhelum, a pair of smaller stellar streams proposed to be dynamically associated with Wukong/LMS-1. We confirmed a carbon-enhanced metal-poor star ($\rm [C/Fe] \gt +0.7$ and $\rm [Fe/H] \sim -2.9$) in Wukong/LMS-1 with strong enhancements in Sr, Y, and Zr, which is peculiar given its solar-level [Ba/Fe]. Wukong/LMS-1 stars have high abundances of α elements up to $\rm [Fe/H] \gtrsim -2$, which is expected for relatively massive dwarfs. Towards the high-metallicity end, Wukong/LMS-1 becomes α-poor, revealing that it probably experienced fairly standard chemical evolution. We identified a pair of N- and Na-rich stars in Wukong/LMS-1, reminiscent of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters. This indicates that this dwarf galaxy contained at least one globular cluster that was completely disrupted in addition to two intact ones previously known to be associated with Wukong/LMS-1, which is possibly connected to similar evidence found in Indus. From these ≥3 globular clusters, we estimate the total mass of Wukong/LMS-1 to be ${\approx }10^{10} \, \mathrm{M}_\odot$, representing ∼1 per cent of the present-day Milky Way. Finally, the [Eu/Mg] ratio in Wukong/LMS-1 continuously increases with metallicity, making this the first example of a dwarf galaxy where the production of r-process elements is clearly dominated by delayed sources, presumably neutron-star mergers.

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    Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) display chemical enrichment in a phenomenon called multiple stellar populations (MSPs). While the enrichment mechanism is not fully understood, there is a correlation between a cluster’s mass and the fraction of enriched stars found therein. However, present-day GC masses are often smaller than their masses at the time of formation due to dynamical mass-loss. In this work, we explore the relationship between mass and MSPs using the stellar stream 300S. We present the chemical abundances of eight red giant branch member stars in 300S with high-resolution spectroscopy from Magellan/MIKE. We identify one enriched star characteristic of MSPs and no detectable metallicity dispersion, confirming that the progenitor of 300S was a GC. The fraction of enriched stars (12.5 per cent) observed in our 300S stars is less than the 50 per cent of stars found enriched in Milky Way GCs of comparable present-day mass (∼104.5 $\mathrm{\, {\rm M}_{\odot }}$). We calculate the mass of 300S’s progenitor and compare it to the initial masses of intact GCs, finding that 300S aligns well with the trend between the system mass at formation and enrichment. 300S’s progenitor may straddle the critical mass threshold for the formation of MSPs and can therefore serve as a benchmark for the stellar enrichment process. Additionally, we identify a CH star, with high abundances of s-process elements, probably accreted from a binary companion. The rarity of such binaries in intact GCs may imply stellar streams permit the survival of binaries that would otherwise be disrupted.

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  4. Abstract

    In this work, we study the phase-space and chemical properties of the Sagittarius (Sgr) stream, the tidal tails produced by the ongoing destruction of the Sgr dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, focusing on its very metal-poor (VMP; [Fe/H] < −2) content. We combine spectroscopic and astrometric information from SEGUE and Gaia EDR3, respectively, with data products from a new large-scale run of theStarHorsespectrophotometric code. Our selection criteria yield ∼1600 stream members, including >200 VMP stars. We find the leading arm (b> 0°) of the Sgr stream to be more metal-poor, by ∼0.2 dex, than the trailing one (b< 0°). With a subsample of turnoff and subgiant stars, we estimate this substructure’s stellar population to be ∼1 Gyr older than the thick disk’s. With the aid of anN-body model of the Sgr system, we verify that simulated particles stripped earlier (>2 Gyr ago) have present-day phase-space properties similar to lower metallicity stream stars. Conversely, those stripped more recently (<2 Gyr) are preferentially akin to metal-rich ([Fe/H] > −1) members of the stream. Such correlation between kinematics and chemistry can be explained by the existence of a dynamically hotter, less centrally concentrated, and more metal-poor population in Sgr dSph prior to its disruption, implying that this galaxy was able to develop a metallicity gradient before its accretion. Finally, we identified several carbon-enhanced metal-poor ([C/Fe] > +0.7 and [Fe/H] ≤ −1.5) stars in the Sgr stream, which might be in tension with current observations of its remaining core where such objects are not found.

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  5. Abstract

    Orbital characteristics based on Gaia Early Data Release 3 astrometric parameters are analyzed for ∼4000 metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] ≤ −0.8) compiled from the Best and Brightest survey. Selected as metal-poor candidates based on broadband near- and far-IR photometry, 43% of these stars had medium-resolution (1200 ≲R≲ 2000) validation spectra obtained over a 7 yr campaign from 2014 to 2020 with a variety of telescopes. The remaining stars were chosen based on photometric metallicity determinations from the Huang et al. recalibration of the Sky Mapper Southern Survey. Dynamical clusters of these stars are obtained from the orbital energy and cylindrical actions using theHDBSCANunsupervised learning algorithm. We identify 52 dynamically tagged groups (DTGs) with between five and 21 members; 18 DTGs have at least 10 member stars. Milky Way (MW) substructures such as Gaia-Sausage-Enceladus, the Metal-Weak Thick-Disk, Thamnos, the Splashed Disk, and the Helmi Stream are identified. Associations with MW globular clusters are determined for eight DTGs; no recognized MW dwarf galaxies were associated with any of our DTGs. Previously identified dynamical groups are also associated with our DTGs, with emphasis placed on their structural determination and possible new identifications. Chemically peculiar stars are identified as members of several DTGs, with six DTGs that are associated withr-process-enhanced stars. We demonstrate that the mean carbon andα-element abundances of our DTGs are correlated with their mean metallicity in an understandable manner. Similarly, we find that the mean metallicity, carbon, andα-element abundances are separable into different regions of the mean rotational-velocity space.

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