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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 7, 2024
  2. Abstract

    In 2019, four ice cores were recovered from the world's highest tropical mountain, Nevado Huascarán (Cordillera Blanca, Peru; 9.11°S, 77.61°W). Composite hydroclimate records of the two Col cores (6,050 masl) and the two Summit cores (6,768 masl) are compared to gridded gauge‐analysis and reanalysis climate data for the most recent 60‐year. Spatiotemporal correlation analyses suggest that the ice core oxygen stable isotope (δ18O) record largely reflects tropical Pacific climate variability, particularly in the NINO3.4 region. By extension, the δ18O record is strongly related to rainfall over the Amazon Basin, as teleconnections between the El Niño Southern Oscillation and hydrological behavior are the main drivers of the fractionation of water isotopes. However, on a local scale, modulation of the stable water isotopes appears to be more closely governed by upper atmospheric temperatures than by rainfall amount. Over the last 60 years, the statistical significance of the climate/δ18O relationship has been increasing contemporaneously with the atmospheric and oceanic warming rates and shifts in the Walker circulation. Isotopic records from the Summit appear to be more sensitive to large‐scale temperature changes than the records from the Col. These results may have substantial implications for modeling studies of the behavior of water isotopes at high elevations in the tropical Andes.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  4. The dense outflow through Denmark Strait is the largest contributor to the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. While its hydrographic structure is well documented, a full description of the velocity field across the strait remains incomplete. Here we analyze a set of 22 shipboard hydrographic and velocity sections occupied along the Látrabjarg transect at the Denmark Strait sill, obtained over the time period 1993-2018. The sections provide the first complete view of the kinematic components at the sill: the shelfbreak East Greenland Current (EGC), the combined flow of the Separated EGC and the North Icelandic Jet (NIJ), and the northward flowing North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC). We deconstruct the dense overflow in terms of water mass constituents and flow components, demonstrating that the combined EGC branches and NIJ transport comparable amounts. A strong cyclonic structure was present in two-thirds of the occupations, which is thought to be due to the combined effect of eddies and wind. Strong negative wind stress curl north of the strait intensifies the separated EGC, while the enhanced northerly winds under these conditions strengthen the NIIC and cause it to shift the west. Both the cyclonic and non-cyclonic flow states can be super-critical in different parts of the strait, leading to symmetric instability and enhanced mixing. A proxy is used to assess this condition in a larger set of shipboard crossings with hydrography only, elucidating the degree to which mesoscale features drive such mixing. 
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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024