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  1. We explore flow of a completely wetting fluid in a funnel, with particular focus on contact line instabilities at the fluid front. While the flow in a funnel may be related to a number of other flow configurations as limiting cases, understanding its stability is complicated due to the presence of additional azimuthal curvature, as well as due to convergent flow effects imposed by the geometry. The convergent nature of the flow leads to thickening of the film, therefore influencing its stability properties. In this work, we analyse these stability properties by combining physical experiments, asymptotic modelling, self-similar type ofmore »analysis and numerical simulations. We show that an appropriate long-wave-based model, supported by the input from experiments, simulations and linear stability analysis that originates from the flow down an incline plane, provides a basic insight allowing an understanding of the development of contact line instability and emerging length scales.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 10, 2022
  2. The rate of chemical weathering has been observed to increase with the rate of physical erosion in published comparisons of many catchments, but the mechanisms that couple these processes are not well understood. We investigated this question by exam- ining the chemical weathering and porosity profiles from catchments developed on marine shale located in Pennsylvania, USA (Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, SSHCZO); California, USA (Eel River Critical Zone Observatory, ERC- ZO); and Taiwan (Fushan Experimental Forest). The protolith compositions, protolith porosities, and the depths of regolith at these sites are roughly similar while the catchments are characterized by largemore »differences in erosion rate (1–3 mm yr􏱝1 in Fushan 􏱞 0.2–0.4 mm yr􏱝1 in ERCZO 􏱞 0.01–0.025 mm yr􏱝1 in SSHCZO). The natural experiment did not totally isolate erosion as a variable: mean annual precipitation varied along the erosion gradient (4.2 m yr􏱝1 in Fushan > 1.9 m yr􏱝1 in ERCZO > 1.1 m yr􏱝1 in SSHCZO), so the fastest eroding site experiences nearly twice the mean annual temperature of the other two. Even though erosion rates varied by about 100􏱟, the depth of pyrite and carbonate depletion (defined here as regolith thickness) is roughly the same, consistent with chemical weathering of those minerals keeping up with erosion at the three sites. These minerals were always observed to be the deepest to react, and they reacted until 100% depletion. In two of three of the catchments where borehole observations were available for ridges, these minerals weathered across narrow reaction fronts. On the other hand, for the rock-forming clay mineral chlorite, the depth interval of weathering was wide and the extent of depletion observed at the land surface decreased with increasing erosion/precipitation. Thus, chemical weathering of the clay did not keep pace with erosion rate. But perhaps the biggest difference among the shales is that in the fast-eroding sites, microfractures account for 30–60% of the total porosity while in the slow-eroding shale, dissolution could be directly related to secondary porosity. We argue that the microfractures increase the influx of oxygen at depth and decrease the size of diffusion-limited internal domains of matrix, accelerating weathering of pyrite and carbonate under high erosion-rate condi- tions. Thus, microfracturing is a process that can couple physical erosion and chemical weathering in shales.« less
  3. High angular resolution observations at optical wavelengths provide valuable insights into stellar astrophysics, and enable direct measurements of fundamental stellar parameters and the probing of stellar atmospheres, circumstellar disks, the elongation of rapidly rotating stars and the pulsations of Cepheid variable stars. The angular size of most stars is of the order of one milliarcsecond or less, and to spatially resolve stellar disks and features at this scale requires an optical interferometer using an array of telescopes with baselines on the order of hundreds of metres. We report on the implementation of a stellar intensity interferometry system developed for themore »four VERITAS imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The system was used to measure the angular diameter of the two sub-milliarcsecond stars β Canis Majoris and ϵ Orionis with a precision of greater than 5%. The system uses an offline approach in which starlight intensity fluctuations that are recorded at each telescope are correlated post observation. The technique can be readily scaled onto tens to hundreds of telescopes, providing a capability that has proven technically challenging to the current generation of optical amplitude interferometry observatories. This work demonstrates the feasibility of performing astrophysical measurements using imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope arrays as intensity interferometers and shows the promise for integrating an intensity interferometry system within future observatories such as the Cherenkov Telescope Array.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  7. The angular size of a star is a critical factor in determining its basic properties. Direct measurement of stellar angular diameters is difficult: at interstellar distances stars are generally too small to resolve by any individual imaging telescope. This fundamental limitation can be overcome by studying the diffraction pattern in the shadow cast when an asteroid occults a star, but only when the photometric uncertainty is smaller than the noise added by atmospheric scintillation. Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes used for particle astrophysics observations have not generally been exploited for optical astronomy due to the modest optical quality of the mirror surface.more »However, their large mirror area makes them well suited for such high-time-resolution precision photometry measurements. Here we report two occultations of stars observed by the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) Cherenkov telescopes with millisecond sampling, from which we are able to provide a direct measurement of the occulted stars’ angular diameter at the ≤0.1 mas scale. This is a resolution never achieved before with optical measurements and represents an order of magnitude improvement over the equivalent lunar occultation method. We compare the resulting stellar radius with empirically derived estimates from temperature and brightness measurements, confirming the latter can be biased for stars with ambiguous stellar classifications.« less