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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  2. Social network analysis (SNA) has been gaining traction as a technique for quantitatively studying student collaboration. We analyze networks, constructed from student self-reports of collaboration on homework assignments, in two courses from the University of Colorado Boulder and one course from the Colorado School of Mines. All three courses occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, which allows for a comparison between the course at the Colorado School of Mines (in a fully remote format) with results from a previous pre-pandemic study of student collaboration at the Colorado School of Mines (in a hybrid format). We compute nodal centrality measures and calculate the correlation between student centrality and performance. Results varied widely between each of the courses studied. The course at the Colorado School of Mines had strong correlations between many centrality measures and performance which matched the patterns seen in the pre-pandemic study. The courses at the University of Colorado Boulder showed weaker correlations, and one course showed nearly no correlations at all between students' connectivity to their classmates and their performance. Taken together, the results from the trio of courses indicate that the context and environment in which the course is situated play a more important role in fostering amore »correlation between student collaboration and course performance than the format (remote, hybrid, in-person) of the course. Additionally, we conducted a short study on the effect that missing nodes may have on the correlations calculated from the measured networks. This investigation showed that missing nodes tend to shift correlations towards zero, providing evidence that the statistically significant correlations measured in our networks are not spurious.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 3, 2023
  3. Abstract Quantum cellular automata (QCA) evolve qubits in a quantum circuit depending only on the states of their neighborhoods and model how rich physical complexity can emerge from a simple set of underlying dynamical rules. The inability of classical computers to simulate large quantum systems hinders the elucidation of quantum cellular automata, but quantum computers offer an ideal simulation platform. Here, we experimentally realize QCA on a digital quantum processor, simulating a one-dimensional Goldilocks rule on chains of up to 23 superconducting qubits. We calculate calibrated and error-mitigated population dynamics and complex network measures, which indicate the formation of small-world mutual information networks. These networks decohere at fixed circuit depth independent of system size, the largest of which corresponding to 1,056 two-qubit gates. Such computations may enable the employment of QCA in applications like the simulation of strongly-correlated matter or beyond-classical computational demonstrations.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Abstract We obtain the exact analytical solution for the continuously driven qutrit in the V and Λ configurations governed by the Lindblad master equation. We calculate the linear susceptibility in each system, determining regimes of transient gain without inversion, and identify exact parameter values for superluminal, vanishing, and negative group velocity for the probe field.
  5. Abstract

    We report the clean experimental realization of cubic–quintic complex Ginzburg–Landau (CQCGL) physics in a single driven, damped system. Four numerically predicted categories of complex dynamical behavior and pattern formation are identified for bright and dark solitary waves propagating around an active magnetic thin film-based feedback ring: (1) periodic breathing; (2) complex recurrence; (3) spontaneous spatial shifting; and (4) intermittency. These nontransient, long lifetime behaviors are observed in self-generated spin wave envelopes circulating within a dispersive, nonlinear yttrium iron garnet waveguide. The waveguide is operated in a ring geometry in which the net losses are directly compensated for via linear amplification on each round trip (of the order of 100 ns). These behaviors exhibit periods ranging from tens to thousands of round trip times (of the order ofμs) and are stable for 1000s of periods (of the order of ms). We present ten observations of these dynamical behaviors which span the experimentally accessible ranges of attractive cubic nonlinearity, dispersion, and external field strength that support the self-generation of backward volume spin waves in a four-wave-mixing dominant regime. Three-wave splitting is not explicitly forbidden and is treated as an additional source of nonlinear losses. All observed behaviors are robust over wide parametermore »regimes, making them promising for technological applications. We present ten experimental observations which span all categories of dynamical behavior previously theoretically predicted to be observable. This represents a complete experimental verification of the CQCGL equation as a model for the study of fundamental, complex nonlinear dynamics for driven, damped waves evolving in nonlinear, dispersive systems. The reported dynamical pattern formation of self-generated dark solitary waves in attractive nonlinearity without external sources or potentials, however, is entirely novel and is presented for both the periodic breather and complex recurrence behaviors.

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  6. Abstract

    We investigate the ground states of spin models defined on networks that we imprint (e.g., non-complex random networks like Erdos–Renyi, or complex networks like Watts–Strogatz, and Barabasi–Albert), and their response to decohering processes which we model with network attacks. We quantify the complexity of these ground states, and their response to the attacks, by calculating distributions of network measures of an emergent network whose link weights are the pairwise mutual information between spins. We focus on attacks which projectively measure spins. We find that the emergent networks in the ground state do not satisfy the usual criteria for complexity, and their average properties are captured well by a single dimensionless parameter in the Hamiltonian. While the response of classical networks to attacks is well-studied, where classical complex networks are known to be more robust to random attacks than random networks, we find counter-intuitive results for our quantum networks. We find that the ground states for Hamiltonians defined on different classes of imprinted networks respond similarly to all our attacks, and the attacks rescale the average properties of the emergent network by a constant factor. Mean field theory explains these results for relatively dense networks, but we also find themore »simple rescaling behavior away from the regime of validity of mean field theory. Our calculations indicate that complex spin networks are not more robust to projective measurement attacks, and presumably also other quantum attacks, than non-complex spin networks, in contrast to the classical case. Understanding the response of the spin networks to decoherence and attacks will have applications in understanding the physics of open quantum systems, and in designing robust complex quantum systems—possibly even a robust quantum internet in the long run—that is maximally resistant to decoherence.

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