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    We present the confirmation of a hot super-Neptune with an exterior Neptune companion orbiting a bright (V  = 10.1 mag) F-dwarf identified by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). The two planets, observed in sectors 45, 46, and 48 of the TESS extended mission, are $4.74_{-0.14}^{+0.16}$ and $3.86_{-0.16}^{+0.17}$ R⊕ with $5.4588385_{-0.0000072}^{+0.0000070}$ and $17.8999_{-0.0013}^{+0.0018}$ d orbital periods, respectively. We also obtained precise space-based photometric follow-up of the system with ESA’s CHaracterising ExOplanets Satellite to constrain the radius and ephemeris of TOI-5126 b. TOI-5126 b is located in the ‘hot Neptune Desert’ and is an ideal candidate for follow-up transmission spectroscopy due to its high-predicted equilibrium temperature (Teq = ${1442}_{-40}^{+46}$ K) implying a cloud-free atmosphere. TOI-5126 c is a warm Neptune (Teq = $971_{-27}^{+31}$ K) also suitable for follow-up. Tentative transit timing variations have also been identified in analysis, suggesting the presence of at least one additional planet, however this signal may be caused by spot-crossing events, necessitating further precise photometric follow-up to confirm these signals.

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  2. Abstract

    The extreme environments of ultra-short-period planets (USPs) make excellent laboratories to study how exoplanets obtain, lose, retain, and/or regain gaseous atmospheres. We present the confirmation and characterization of the USP TOI-1347 b, a 1.8 ± 0.1Rplanet on a 0.85 day orbit that was detected with photometry from the TESS mission. We measured radial velocities of the TOI-1347 system using Keck/HIRES and HARPS-N and found the USP to be unusually massive at 11.1 ± 1.2M. The measured mass and radius of TOI-1347 b imply an Earth-like bulk composition. A thin H/He envelope (>0.01% by mass) can be ruled out at high confidence. The system is between 1 and 1.8 Gyr old; therefore, intensive photoevaporation should have concluded. We detected a tentative phase-curve variation (3σ) and a secondary eclipse (2σ) in TESS photometry, which, if confirmed, could indicate the presence of a high-mean-molecular-weight atmosphere. We recommend additional optical and infrared observations to confirm the presence of an atmosphere and investigate its composition.

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    We report on the discovery and characterization of three planets orbiting the F8 star HD 28109, which sits comfortably in ${TESS}$’s continuous viewing zone. The two outer planets have periods of $\rm 56.0067 \pm 0.0003~d$ and $\rm 84.2597_{-0.0008}^{+0.0010}~d$, which implies a period ratio very close to that of the first-order 3:2 mean motion resonance, exciting transit timing variations (TTVs) of up to $\rm 60\, min$. These two planets were first identified by ${TESS}$, and we identified a third planet in the ${TESS}$photometry with a period of $\rm 22.8911 \pm 0.0004~d$. We confirm the planetary nature of all three planetary candidates using ground-based photometry from Hazelwood, ${ASTEP}$, and LCO, including a full detection of the $\rm \sim 9\, h$ transit of HD 28109 c from Antarctica. The radii of the three planets are ${\it R}_b=2.199_{-0.10}^{+0.098} ~{\rm R}_{\oplus }$, ${\it R}_c=4.23\pm 0.11~ {\rm R}_{\oplus }$, and ${\it R}_d=3.25\pm 0.11 ~{\rm R}_{\oplus }$; we characterize their masses using TTVs and precise radial velocities from ESPRESSO and HARPS, and find them to be ${\it M}_b=18.5_{-7.6}^{+9.1}~M_{\oplus }$, ${\it M}_c=7.9_{-3.0}^{+4.2}~{\rm M}_{\oplus }$, and ${\it M}_d=5.7_{-2.1}^{+2.7}~{\rm M}_{\oplus }$, making planet b a dense, massive planet while c and d are both underdense. We also demonstrate that the two outer planets are ripe for atmospheric characterization using transmission spectroscopy, especially given their position in the CVZ of James Webb Space Telescope. The data obtained to date are consistent with resonant (librating) and non-resonant (circulating) solutions; additional observations will show whether the pair is actually locked in resonance or just near-resonant.

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