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Creators/Authors contains: "Liu, Alan Z."

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  1. Abstract

    We report a detailed analysis of atmospheric stabilities in the mesopause region (85–100 km) based on over 2,000 hr of high‐resolution temperature and horizontal wind measurements made with a Na lidar at the Andes Lidar Observatory, located in Cerro Pachón, Chile (30.25°S, 70.74°W). The square of Brunt–Väisälä frequency and the Richardson number are calculated, and occurrence probabilities of convective and dynamic instabilities are derived. An approach to assess the biases due to measurement uncertainties is used to obtain more accurate occurrence probabilities. The overall occurrence probabilities of convective and dynamic instabilities are 2.7% and 6.7%, respectively. High‐, medium‐, and low‐ frequency gravity wave (GW) contributions to these probabilities are isolated, which show that the high‐frequency GWs contribute most but simultaneous presence of high‐ and medium frequency GWs is much more effective in increasing the probabilities. Convective and dynamic instabilities are mainly generated because of the joint effect of different‐scale GWs. Isolated parts of GWs have much less contribution to the generation of both convective and dynamic instabilities. The dynamic instability is mainly contributed from less stable stratification and large wind shear together. Either factor can lead to about 15% of dynamic instability.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Gravity waves (GWs) and their associated multi‐scale dynamics are known to play fundamental roles in energy and momentum transport and deposition processes throughout the atmosphere. We describe an initial machine learning model—the Compressible Atmosphere Model Network (CAM‐Net). CAM‐Net is trained on high‐resolution simulations by the state‐of‐the‐art model Complex Geometry Compressible Atmosphere Model (CGCAM). Two initial applications to a Kelvin‐Helmholtz instability source and mountain wave generation, propagation, breaking, and Secondary GW (SGW) generation in two wind environments are described here. Results show that CAM‐Net can capture the key 2‐D dynamics modeled by CGCAM with high precision. Spectral characteristics of primary and SGWs estimated by CAM‐Net agree well with those from CGCAM. Our results show that CAM‐Net can achieve a several order‐of‐magnitude acceleration relative to CGCAM without sacrificing accuracy and suggests a potential for machine learning to enable efficient and accurate descriptions of primary and secondary GWs in global atmospheric models.

     
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  4. Abstract

    The long‐term statistical characteristics of high‐frequency quasi‐monochromatic gravity waves are presented using multi‐year airglow images observed at Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO, 30.3°S, 70.7°W) in northern Chile. The distribution of primary gravity wave parameters including horizontal wavelength, vertical wavelength, intrinsic wave speed, and intrinsic wave period are obtained and are in the ranges of 20–30 km, 15–25 km, 50–100 m s−1, and 5–10 min, respectively. The duration of persistent gravity wave events captured by the imager approximately follows an exponential distribution with an average duration of 7–9 min. The waves tend to propagate against the local background winds and show evidence of seasonal variations. In austral winter (May–August), the observed wave occurrence frequency is higher, and preferential wave propagation is equator‐ward. In austral summer (November–February), the wave occurrence frequency is lower, and the waves mostly propagate pole‐ward. Critical‐layer filtering plays a moderate role in determining the preferential propagation direction in certain months, especially for waves with a smaller observed phase speed (less than typical background winds). The observed wave occurrence and preferential propagation direction are related to the locations of convection activities nearby and their relative distance to ALO. However, direct wave generations are less likely due to the large distance between the ALO and convective sources. Other mechanisms such as secondary wave generation and possible ducted propagation should be considered. The estimated mean momentum fluxes have typical values of a few m2 s−2.

     
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  6. Abstract

    Vertical energy transports due to dissipating gravity waves in the mesopause region (85–100 km) are analyzed using over 400 h of observational data obtained from a narrow‐band sodium wind‐temperature lidar located at Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO), Cerro Pachón (30.25°S, 70.73°W), Chile. Sensible heat flux is directly estimated using measured temperature and vertical wind; energy flux is estimated from the vertical wavenumber and frequency spectra of temperature perturbations; and enthalpy flux is derived based on its relationship with sensible heat and energy fluxes. Sensible heat flux is mostly downward throughout the region. Enthalpy flux exhibits an annual oscillation with maximum downward transport in July above 90 km. The dominant feature of energy flux is the exponential decrease from 10−2to 10−4 W m−2with the altitude increases from 85 to 100 km and is larger during austral winter. The annual mean thermal diffusivity inferred from enthalpy flux decreases from 303 m2s−1at 85 km to minimum 221 m2s−1at 90 km then increases to 350 m2s−1at 99 km. Results also show that shorter period gravity waves tend to dissipate at higher altitudes and generate more heat transport. The averaged vertical group velocities for high, medium, and low frequency waves are 4.15 m s−1, 1.15 m s−1, and 0.70 m s−1, respectively. Gravity wave heat transport brings significant cooling in the mesopause region at an average cooling rate of 6.7 ± 1.1 K per day.

     
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  7. Abstract

    A compressible numerical model is applied for three‐dimensional (3‐D) gravity wave (GW) packets undergoing momentum deposition, self‐acceleration (SA), breaking, and secondary GW (SGW) generation in the presence of highly‐structured environments enabling thermal and/or Doppler ducts, such as a mesospheric inversion layer (MIL), tidal wind (TW), or combination of MIL and TW. Simulations reveal that ducts can strongly modulate GW dynamics. Responses modeled here include reflection, trapping, suppressed transmission, strong local instabilities, reduced SGW generations, higher altitude SGW responses, and induced large‐scale flows. Instabilities that arise in ducts experience strong dissipation after they emerge, while trapped smaller‐amplitude and smaller‐scale GWs can survive in ducts to much later times. Additionally, GW breaking and its associated dynamics enhance the local wind along the GW propagation direction in the ducts, and yield layering in the wind field. However, these dynamics do not yield significant heat transport in the ducts. The failure of GW breaking to induce stratified layers in the temperature field suggests that such heat transport might not be as strong as previously assumed or inferred from observations and theoretical assessments. The present numerical simulations confirm previous finding that MIL generation may not be caused by the breaking of a transient high‐frequency GW packet alone.

     
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  8. Abstract

    The extension of the neutral sodium (Na) layer into the thermosphere (up to 170 km) has recently been observed at low and high latitudes using a Na lidar. However, the geophysical mechanisms and implications of its formation are currently unknown. In this study, we conduct an advanced two‐dimensional numerical simulation of the Na and Na+variations in theEandFregions at low latitudes. The numerical simulations are used to investigate the contributions of the electromagnetic force, neutral wind, diffusion, and gravity. The simulations lead to three major findings. First, Na+in the subtropical region of the geomagnetic equator acts as the major reservoir of the neutral sodium, and its distribution during nighttime is mostly below 200 km due to the combined effect of the vertical component of thedrift and Coulomb‐induced drift. Second, we find that the fountain effect has little influence on the behavior of Na in the nighttime. Third, the probable explanation for the frequent generation of the thermospheric sodium layer during spring equinox at Cerro Pachón, Chile is attributed to the large vertical neutral transport generated by large vertical wind perturbations of unknown origin, with a magnitude exceeding 10 m/s that is closely associated with the semidiurnal tide.

     
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