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  1. Abstract We develop a thin-film microstructural model that represents structural markers (i.e., triple junctions in the two-dimensional projections of the structure of films with columnar grains) in terms of a stochastic, marked point process and the microstructure itself in terms of a grain-boundary network. The advantage of this representation is that it is conveniently applicable to the characterization of microstructures obtained from crystal orientation mapping, leading to a picture of an ensemble of interacting triple junctions, while providing results that inform grain-growth models with experimental data. More specifically, calculated quantities such as pair, partial pair and mark correlation functions, along with the microstructural mutual information (entropy), highlight effective triple junction interactions that dictate microstructural evolution. To validate this approach, we characterize microstructures from Al thin films via crystal orientation mapping and formulate an approach, akin to classical density functional theory, to describe grain growth that embodies triple-junction interactions. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    The effective mass at the Fermi level is measured in the strongly interacting two-dimensional (2D) electron system in ultra-clean SiGe/Si/SiGe quantum wells in the low-temperature limit in tilted magnetic fields. At low electron densities, the effective mass is found to be strongly enhanced and independent of the degree of spin polarization, which indicates that the mass enhancement is not related to the electrons’ spins. The observed effect turns out to be universal for silicon-based 2D electron systems, regardless of random potential, and cannot be explained by existing theories.

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  3. Abstract

    We use the conjugate angle of radial action (θR), the best representation of the orbital phase, to explore the “midplane,” “north branch,” “south branch,” and “Monoceros area” disk structures that were previously revealed in the LAMOST K giants. The former three substructures, identified by their 3D kinematical distributions, have been shown to be projections of the phase space spiral (resulting from nonequilibrium phase mixing). In this work, we find that all of these substructures associated with the phase spiral show high aggregation in conjugate angle phase space, indicating that the clumping in conjugate angle space is a feature of ongoing, incomplete phase mixing. We do not find theZVZphase spiral located in the “Monoceros area,” but we do find a very highly concentrated substructure in the quadrant of conjugate angle space with the orbital phase from the apocenter to the guiding radius. The existence of the clump in conjugate angle space provides a complementary way to connect the “Monoceros area” with the direct response to a perturbation from a significant gravitationally interactive event. Using test particle simulations, we show that these features are analogous to disturbances caused by the impact of the last passage of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
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  6. One of the most important problems in science is understanding causation. This problem is particularly challenging when causation has to be inferred from observational data only. A further challenge of this problem is if the observed data were generated in the presence of latent confounders. In this paper, we propose a method for detecting confounders in multivariate time series using a recently introduced concept referred to as differential causal effect (DCE). The solution is based on feature-based Gaussian processes that are not only used for estimating the DCE of the observed time series but also for estimating the latent confounders. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method with several examples. They show that the proposed approach can detect confounders and can accurately estimate causal strengths. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  7. In science and engineering, we often deal with signals that are acquired from time-varying systems represented by dynamic graphs. We observe these signals, and the interest is in finding the time-varying topology of the graphs. We propose two Bayesian methods for estimating these topologies without assuming any specific functional relationships among the signals on the graphs. The two methods exploit Gaussian processes, where the first method uses the length scale of the kernel and relies on variational inference for optimization, and the second method is based on derivatives of the functions and Monte Carlo sampling. Both methods estimate the time-varying topologies of the graphs sequentially. We provide numerical tests that show the performance of the methods in two settings. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
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