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  1. OpenMP implementations make increasing demands on the kernel. We take the next step and consider bringing OpenMP into the kernel. Our vision is that the entire OpenMP application, run-time system, and a kernel framework is interwoven to become the kernel, allowing the OpenMP implementation to take full advantage of the hardware in a custom manner. We compare and contrast three approaches to achieving this goal. The first, runtime in kernel (RTK), ports the OpenMP runtime to the kernel, allowing any kernel code to use OpenMP pragmas. The second, process in kernel (PIK) adds a specialized process abstraction for running user-level OpenMP code within the kernel. The third, custom compilation for kernel (CCK), compiles OpenMP into a form that leverages the kernel framework without any intermediaries. We describe the design and implementation of these approaches, and evaluate them using NAS and other benchmarks. 
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  2. Specialized operating systems have enjoyed a recent revival driven both by a pressing need to rethink the system software stack in several domains and by the convenience and flexibility that on-demand infrastructure and virtual execution environments offer. Several barriers exist which curtail the widespread adoption of such highly specialized systems, but perhaps the most consequential of them is that these systems are simply difficult to use. In this paper we discuss the challenges faced by specialized OSes, both for HPC and more broadly, and argue that what is needed to make them practically useful is a reasonable development and deployment model that will form the foundation for a kernel ecosystem that allows intrepid developers to discover, experiment with, contribute to, and write programs for available kernel frameworks while safely ignoring complexities such as provisioning, deployment, cross-compilation, and interface compatibility. We argue that such an ecosystem would allow more developers of highly tuned applications to reap the performance benefits of specialized kernels. 
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