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  1. ABSTRACT Both the CO(2–1) and CO(1–0) lines are used to trace the mass of molecular gas in galaxies. Translating the molecular gas mass estimates between studies using different lines requires a good understanding of the behaviour of the CO(2–1)-to-CO(1–0) ratio, R21. We compare new, high-quality CO(1–0) data from the IRAM 30-m EMIR MultiLine Probe of the ISM Regulating Galaxy Evolution survey to the latest available CO(2–1) maps from HERA CO-Line Extragalactic Survey, Physics at High Angular resolution in Nearby Galaxies-ALMA, and a new IRAM 30-m M51 Large Program. This allows us to measure R21 across the full star-forming disc ofmore »nine nearby, massive, star-forming spiral galaxies at 27 arcsec (∼1–2 kpc) resolution. We find an average R21 = 0.64 ± 0.09 when we take the luminosity-weighted mean of all individual galaxies. This result is consistent with the mean ratio for disc galaxies that we derive from single-pointing measurements in the literature, $R_{\rm 21, lit}~=~0.59^{+0.18}_{-0.09}$. The ratio shows weak radial variations compared to the point-to-point scatter in the data. In six out of nine targets, the central enhancement in R21 with respect to the galaxy-wide mean is of order of ${\sim}10{-}20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$. We estimate an azimuthal scatter of ∼20 per cent in R21 at fixed galactocentric radius but this measurement is limited by our comparatively coarse resolution of 1.5 kpc. We find mild correlations between R21 and carbon monoxide (CO) brightness temperature, infrared (IR) intensity, 70–160 µm ratio, and IR-to-CO ratio. All correlations indicate that R21 increases with gas surface density, star formation rate surface density, and the interstellar radiation field.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 5, 2022
  2. The discovery of the thermosphere-ionosphere Fe (TIFe) layers has opened a door to exploring the least understood thermosphere and ionosphere region between 100 and 200 km with ground-based lidar instruments. The characteristics of the polar TIFe layers, and the impacts of the atmosphere neutral dynamics, electrodynamics, and metallic chemistry on the formation of TIFe layers deserve further investigation, especially the diurnal cycles of TIFe layers observed by lidar. This paper aims at investigating the major driving forces with 1-D Thermosphere-Ionosphere Fe/Fe + (TIFe) model. A main question to answer is whether neutral dynamics like tidal winds or electrodynamics like themore »convection electric fields and currents in the magnetosphere and ionosphere are responsible for the diurnal cycle of TIFe layers.« less

    We present an analysis of the dust attenuation of star-forming galaxies at z = 2.5–4.0 through the relationship between the UV spectral slope (β), stellar mass (M*), and the infrared excess (IRX = LIR/LUV) based on far-infrared continuum observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). Our study exploits the full ALMA archive over the COSMOS field processed by the A3COSMOS team, which includes an unprecedented sample of ∼1500 galaxies at z ∼ 3 as primary or secondary targets in ALMA band 6 or 7 observations with a median continuum sensitivity of 126 $\rm {\mu Jy\, beam}^{-1}$ (1σ). The detectionmore »rate is highly mass dependent, decreasing drastically below log (M*/M⊙) = 10.5. The detected galaxies show that the IRX–β relationship of massive (log M*/M⊙ > 10) main-sequence galaxies at z = 2.5–4.0 is consistent with that of local galaxies, while starbursts are generally offset by $\sim 0.5\, {\rm dex}$ to larger IRX values. At the low-mass end, we derive upper limits on the infrared luminosities through stacking of the ALMA data. The combined IRX–M* relation at $\rm {log\, ({\it M}_{\ast }/\mathrm{M}_{\odot })\gt 9}$ exhibits a significantly steeper slope than reported in previous studies at similar redshifts, implying little dust obscuration at log M*/M⊙ < 10. However, our results are consistent with earlier measurements at z ∼ 5.5, indicating a potential redshift evolution between z ∼ 2 and z ∼ 6. Deeper observations targeting low-mass galaxies will be required to confirm this finding.

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