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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024

    In this work, we combine information from solar-like oscillations, high-resolution spectroscopy, and Gaia astrometry to derive stellar ages, chemical abundances, and kinematics for a group of seven metal-poor red giants and characterize them in a multidimensional chrono-chemo-dynamical space. Chemical abundance ratios were derived through classical spectroscopic analysis employing 1D LTE atmospheres on Keck/HIRES spectra. Stellar ages, masses, and radii were calculated with grid-based modelling, taking advantage of availability of asteroseismic information from Kepler. The dynamical properties were determined with galpy using Gaia EDR3 astrometric solutions. Our results suggest that underestimated parallax errors make the effect of Gaia parallaxes more important than different choices of model grid or – in the case of stars ascending the red giant branch – mass-loss prescription. Two of the stars in this study are identified as potentially evolved halo blue stragglers. Four objects are likely members of the accreted Milky Way halo, and their possible relationship with known accretion events is discussed.

  4. Abstract Background Brassica oleracea includes several morphologically diverse, economically important vegetable crops, such as the cauliflower and cabbage. However, genetic variants, especially large structural variants (SVs), that underlie the extreme morphological diversity of B. oleracea remain largely unexplored. Results Here we present high-quality chromosome-scale genome assemblies for two B. oleracea morphotypes, cauliflower and cabbage. Direct comparison of these two assemblies identifies ~ 120 K high-confidence SVs. Population analysis of 271 B. oleracea accessions using these SVs clearly separates different morphotypes, suggesting the association of SVs with B. oleracea intraspecific divergence. Genes affected by SVs selected between cauliflower and cabbage are enriched with functions related to response to stress and stimulus and meristem and flower development. Furthermore, genes affected by selected SVs and involved in the switch from vegetative to generative growth that defines curd initiation, inflorescence meristem proliferation for curd formation, maintenance and enlargement, are identified, providing insights into the regulatory network of curd development. Conclusions This study reveals the important roles of SVs in diversification of different morphotypes of B. oleracea , and the newly assembled genomes and the SVs provide rich resources for future research and breeding.