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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 28, 2023
  2. Magneto-ionics has emerged as a promising approach to manipulate magnetic properties, not only by drastically reducing power consumption associated with electric current based devices but also by enabling novel functionalities. To date, magneto-ionics have been mostly explored in oxygen-based systems, while there is a surge of interest in alternative ionic systems. Here we demonstrate highly effective hydroxide-based magneto-ionics in electrodeposited α-Co(OH) 2 films. The α-Co(OH) 2 , which is a room temperature paramagnet, is switched to ferromagnetic after electrolyte gating with a negative voltage. The system is fully, magnetically reversible upon positive voltage application. The origin of the reversible paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transition is attributed to the ionic diffusion of hydroxyl groups, promoting the formation of metallic cobalt ferromagnetic regions. Our findings demonstrate one of the lowest turn-on voltages reported for propylene carbonate gated experiments. By tuning the voltage magnitude and sample area we demonstrate that the speed of the induced ionic effect can be drastically enhanced.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 24, 2023
  3. Oceanic eddies accompanied by a significant vertical velocity ( w ) are known to be of great importance for the vertical transport of various climatically, biologically or biogeochemically relevant properties. Using quasi-geostrophic w -thinking to extend the classic “ β -spiral” w -theory for gyre circulations to isolated and nearly symmetric oceanic mesoscale eddies, we propose that their w motion will be dominated by a strong east-west dipole pattern with deep ocean penetrations. Contrasting numerical simulations of idealized isolated eddies together with w -equation diagnostics confirm that the w -dipole is indeed dominated by the “eddy β -spiral” mechanism in the β -plane simulation, whereas this w -dipole expectedly disappears in the f -plane simulation. Analyses of relatively isolated warm and cold eddy examples show good agreement with the proposed mechanism. Our studies further clarify eddy vertical motions, have implications for ocean mixing and vertical transport, and inspire further studies.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 21, 2023
  4. We report the first experimental demonstration of a vertical superjunction device in GaN. P-type nickel oxide (NiO) is sputtered conformally in 6μm deep n-GaN trenches. Sputter recipe is tuned to enable 1017 cm −3 level acceptor concentration in NiO, easing its charge balance with the 9×1016 cm −3 doped n-GaN. Vertical GaN superjunction p-n diodes (SJ-PNDs) are fabricated on both native GaN and low-cost sapphire substrates. GaN SJ-PNDs on GaN and sapphire both show a breakdown voltage (BV) of 1100 V, being at least 900 V higher than their 1-D PND counterparts. The differential specific on-resistance (RON,SP) of the two SJ-PNDs are both 0.3mΩ⋅ cm 2 , with the drift region resistance (RDR,SP) extracted to be 0.15mΩ⋅ cm 2 . The RON,SP∼BV trade-off is among the best in GaN-on-GaN diodes and sets a new record for vertical GaN devices on foreign substrates. The RDR,SP∼BV trade-off exceeds the 1-D GaN limit, fulfilling the superjunction functionality in GaN.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 3, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  6. Topological Dirac semimetal α-Sn exhibits unexpectedly large bilinear magnetoelectric resistance at room temperature.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 29, 2023
  7. The magnetic properties of cobalt metal nanowires grown by electrodeposition in porous membranes depend largely on the synthesis conditions. Here, we focus on the role of electrolyte additives on the magnetic anisotropy of the electrodeposited nanowires. Through magnetometry and internal field nuclear magnetic resonance (IF NMR) studies, we compared both the magnetic and crystalline structures of 50 and 200 nm diameter Co nanowires synthesized in the presence or absence of organic additives. The spectral characteristics of IF NMR were compared structurally to X-ray diffraction patterns, and the anisotropy of the NMR enhancement factor in ferromagnetic multidomain structures to magnetometry results. While the magnetic behavior of the 50 nm nanowires was dominated, as expected, by shape anisotropy with magnetic domains oriented on axis, the analysis of the 200 nm proved to be more complex. 59 Co IF NMR revealed that the determining difference between the samples electrodeposited in the presence or in absence of organic additives was not the dominant crystalline system (fcc or hcp) but the coherent domain sizes and boundaries. In the presence of organic additives, the cobalt crystal domains are smaller and with defective grain boundaries, as revealed by resonances below 210 MHz. This prevented the development inmore »the Co hcp part of the sample of the strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy that was observed in the absence of organic additives. In the presence of organic additives, even in nanowires as wide as 200 nm, the magnetic behavior remained determined by the shape anisotropy with a positive effective magnetic anisotropy and strong anisotropy of the NMR enhancement factor.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 18, 2023
  8. Different types of lane-changing assistance systems are usually developed separately by different automotive makers or suppliers. A lane-changing model can meet its own requirements, but it may be incompatible with another lane-changing model. In this paper, we verify if two lane-changing models are compatible so that the two corresponding vehicles on different lanes can exchange their lanes successfully. We propose a methodology and an algorithm to perform the verification on the combinations of four lane-changing models. Experimental results demonstrate the compatibility (or incompatibility) between the models. The verification results can be utilized during runtime to prevent incompatible vehicles from entering a lane-changing road segment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work considering the compatibility issue for lane-changing models.
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023