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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 12, 2022
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 12, 2022
  3. Rice, J. ; Liu, X. ; Sasanakul, I. ; McIlroy, M. ; Xiao, M. (Ed.)
    Coastal dunes often present the first line of defense for the built environment during extreme wave surge and storm events. In order to protect inland infrastructure, dunes must resist erosion in the face of these incidents. Microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP), or more commonly bio-cementation, can be used to increase the critical shear strength of sand and mitigate erosion. To evaluate the performance of bio-cemented dunes, prototypical dunes consisting of clean poorly graded sand collected from the Oregon coast were constructed within the Large Wave Flume at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory at Oregon State University. The bio-cementation treatmentmore »was sprayed onto the surface of the unsaturated dune. The level of cementation was monitored using shear wave velocity measurements throughout the duration of the treatments. The treated and control dunes were subjected to 19 trials of approximately 300 waves each, with each trial increasing in water depth, wave height, and wave period. The performance of the dune was evaluated using lidar scans between each wave trial. The results indicate that the surface spraying treatment technique produced consistent levels of bio-cementation throughout the treated length of the dune and demonstrated significant resistance to erosion from the wave trails.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  4. How related is skin to a quilt or door to worry? Here, we show that linguistic experience strongly informs people’s judgments of such word pairs. We asked Chinese-speakers, English-speakers, and Chinese-English bilinguals to rate semantic and visual similarity between pairs of Chinese words and of their English translation equivalents. Some pairs were unrelated, others were also unrelated but shared a radical (e.g., “expert” and “dolphin” share the radical meaning “pig”), others also shared a radical which invokes a metaphorical relationship. For example, a quilt covers the body like skin; understand, with a sun radical, invokes understanding as illumination. Importantly, themore »shared radicals are not part of the pronounced word form. Chinese speakers rated word pairs with metaphorical connections as more similar than other pairs. English speakers did not even though they were sensitive to shared radicals. Chinese-English bilinguals showed sensitivity to the metaphorical connections even when tested with English words.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2022
  5. Certain colors are strongly associated with certain adjectives (e.g. red is hot, blue is cold). Some of these associations are grounded in visual experiences like seeing hot embers glow red. Surprisingly, many congenitally blind people show similar color associations, despite lacking all visual experience of color. Presumably, they learn these associations via language. Can we detect these associations in the statistics of language? And if so, what form do they take? We apply a projection method to word embeddings trained on corpora of spoken and written text to identify color-adjective associations as they are represented in language. We show thatmore »these projections are predictive of color-adjective ratings collected from blind and sighted people, and that the effect size depends on the training corpus. Finally, we examine how color-adjective associations might be represented in language by training word embeddings on corpora from which various sources of color-semantic information are removed.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2022
  6. Although graph convolutional networks (GCNs) that extend the convolution operation from images to graphs have led to competitive performance, the existing GCNs are still difficult to handle a variety of applications, especially cheminformatics problems. Recently multiple GCNs are applied to chemical compound structures which are represented by the hydrogen-depleted molecular graphs of different size. GCNs built for a binary adjacency matrix that reflects the connectivity among nodes in a graph do not account for the edge consistency in multiple molecular graphs, that is, chemical bonds (edges) in different molecular graphs can be similar due to the similar enthalpy and interatomicmore »distance. In this paper, we propose a variant of GCN where a molecular graph is first decomposed into multiple views of the graph, each comprising a specific type of edges. In each view, an edge consistency constraint is enforced so that similar edges in different graphs can receive similar attention weights when passing information. Similarly to prior work, we prove that in each layer, our method corresponds to a spectral filter derived by the first order Chebyshev approximation of graph Laplacian. Extensive experiments demonstrate the substantial advantages of the proposed technique in quantitative structure-activity relationship prediction.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 20, 2022
  7. Fitch, T. ; Lamm, C. ; Leder, H. ; Teßmar-Raible, K. (Ed.)
    Is analogical reasoning a task that must be learned to solve from scratch by applying deep learning models to massive numbers of reasoning problems? Or are analogies solved by computing similarities between structured representations of analogs? We address this question by comparing human performance on visual analogies created using images of familiar three-dimensional objects (cars and their subregions) with the performance of alternative computational models. Human reasoners achieved above-chance accuracy for all problem types, but made more errors in several conditions (e.g., when relevant subregions were occluded). We compared human performance to that of two recent deep learning models (Siamesemore »Network and Relation Network) directly trained to solve these analogy problems, as well as to that of a compositional model that assesses relational similarity between part-based representations. The compositional model based on part representations, but not the deep learning models, generated qualitative performance similar to that of human reasoners.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2022
  8. As promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries, rechargeable anion-shuttle batteries (ASBs) with anions as charge carriers stand out because of their low cost, long cyclic lifetime, and/or high energy density. In this review, we provide for the first time, comprehensive insights into the anion shuttling mechanisms of ASBs, including anion-based rocking-chair batteries (ARBs), dual-ion batteries (DIBs), including insertion-type, conversion-type, and conversion- insertion-type, and reverse dual-ion batteries (RDIBs). Thereafter, we review the latest progresses and challenges regarding electrode materials and electrolytes for ASBs. In addition, we summarize the existing dilemmas of ASBs and outline the perspective of ASB technology for future gridmore »storage.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 5, 2022
  9. In this paper, a type of transparent colored static display consisting of a flat glass waveguide and embedded multi-layer gratings is presented, by which multiple patterns and colors with a wide field of view (FOV) can be displayed. The embedded grating is achieved by nanoimprinting followed by deposition of a high refractive index dielectric layer. The process can be repeated to produce multi-layer gratings, which are shaped into specific patterns to be displayed, and they are designed to have proper periods and orientations to independently extract light incident from different edges of the glass plate. Such transparent display offers themore »advantages of low cost, easy fabrication and wide FOV, and it is suitable for colored signage and decorative applications« less