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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 2, 2023
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  4. Aqueous redox flow batteries could provide viable grid-scale electrochemical energy storage for renewable energy because of their high-power performance, scalability, and safe operation ( 1 , 2 ). Redox-active organic molecules serve as the energy storage materials ( 2 , 3 ), but only very few organic molecules, such as viologen ( 4 , 5 ) and anthraquinone molecules ( 6 ), have demonstrated promising energy storage performance ( 2 ). Efforts continue to develop other families of organic molecules for flow battery applications that would have dense charge capacities and be chemically robust. On page 836 of this issue,more »Feng et al. ( 7 ) report a class of ingeniously designed 9-fluorenone (FL) molecules as high-performance, potentially low-cost organic anode electrolytes (anolytes) in aqueous organic redox flow batteries (see the figure, top). These FL anolytes not only display exceptional energy storage performance but also exhibit an unprecedented two-electron storage mechanism.« less
  5. Insects possess specific immune responses to protect themselves from different types of pathogens. Activation of immune cascades can inflict significant developmental costs on the surviving host. To characterize infection kinetics in a surviving host that experiences baculovirus inoculation, it is crucial to determine the timing of immune responses. Here, we investigated time-dependent immune responses and developmental costs elicited by inoculations from each of two wild-type baculoviruses, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Helicoverpa zea single nucleopolyhedrovirus (HzSNPV), in their common host H. zea. As H. zea is a semi-permissive host of AcMNPV and fully permissive to HzSNPV, we hypothesized theremore »are differential immune responses and fitness costs associated with resisting infection by each virus species. Newly molted 4th-instar larvae that were inoculated with a low dose (LD15) of either virus showed significantly higher hemolymph FAD-glucose dehydrogenase (GLD) activities compared to the corresponding control larvae. Hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity, protein concentration and total hemocyte numbers were not increased, but instead were lower than in control larvae at some time points post-inoculation. Larvae that survived either virus inoculation exhibited reduced pupal weight; survivors inoculated with AcMNPV grew slower than the control larvae, while survivors of HzSNPV pupated earlier than control larvae. Our results highlight the complexity of immune responses and fitness costs associated with combating different baculoviruses.« less
  6. How bio-membranes are self-organized to perform their functions remains a pivotal issue in biological and chemical science. Understanding the self-assembly principles of lipid-like molecules hence becomes crucial. Here we report the meso-structural evolution of amphiphilic sphere-rod conjugates (giant lipids), and study the roles of geometric parameters (head-tail ratio and cross-section area) during this course. As a prototype system, giant lipids resemble natural lipidic molecules by capturing their essential features including head-tail configuration, monodispersed molecular weight distribution and minor interpenetration of hydrophobic tails. We demonstrate the self-assembly behavior of two categories of giant lipids (I-shape and T-shape, a total of 8more »molecules). A rich variety of meso-structures are constructed in solution state and their molecular packing models are rationally understood. We streamline the driving forces of morphological evolution from both geometric and thermodynamic perspective. Giant lipids recast the phase behavior of both linear and branched lipidic molecules to certain degree, while the abundant self-assembled morphologies reveal distinct physiochemical behaviors when geometric parameters deviate from natural analogues.« less
  7. With the rapid development of social media, visual sentiment analysis from image or video has become a hot spot in visual understanding researches. In this work, we propose an effective approach using visual and textual fusion for sentiment analysis of short GIF videos with textual descriptions. We extract both sequence-level and frame-level visual features for each given GIF video. Next, we build a visual sentiment classifier by using the extracted features. We also define a mapping function, which converts the sentiment probability from the classifier to a sentiment score used in our fusion function. At the same time, for themore »accompanying textual annotations, we employ the Synset forest to extract the sets of the meaningful sentiment words and utilize the SentiWordNet3.0 model to obtain the textual sentiment score. Then, we design a joint visual-textual sentiment score function weighted with visual sentiment component and textual sentiment one. To make the function more robust, we introduce a noticeable difference threshold to further process the fused sentiment score. Finally, we adopt a grid search technique to obtain relevant model hyper-parameters by optimizing a sentiment aware score function. Experimental results and analysis extensively demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sentiment recognition scheme on three benchmark datasets including the TGIF dataset, GSO-2016 dataset, and Adjusted-GIFGIF dataset.« less