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Creators/Authors contains: "Liu, Tianming"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 26, 2024
  2. Abstract

    The human brain development experiences a complex evolving cortical folding from a smooth surface to a convoluted ensemble of folds. Computational modeling of brain development has played an essential role in better understanding the process of cortical folding, but still leaves many questions to be answered. A major challenge faced by computational models is how to create massive brain developmental simulations with affordable computational sources to complement neuroimaging data and provide reliable predictions for brain folding. In this study, we leveraged the power of machine learning in data augmentation and prediction to develop a machine-learning-based finite element surrogate model to expedite brain computational simulations, predict brain folding morphology, and explore the underlying folding mechanism. To do so, massive finite element method (FEM) mechanical models were run to simulate brain development using the predefined brain patch growth models with adjustable surface curvature. Then, a GAN-based machine learning model was trained and validated with these produced computational data to predict brain folding morphology given a predefined initial configuration. The results indicate that the machine learning models can predict the complex morphology of folding patterns, including 3-hinge gyral folds. The close agreement between the folding patterns observed in FEM results and those predicted by machine learning models validate the feasibility of the proposed approach, offering a promising avenue to predict the brain development with given fetal brain configurations.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 8, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    Current brain mapping methods highly depend on the regularity, or commonality, of anatomical structure, by forcing the same atlas to be matched to different brains. As a result, individualized structural information can be overlooked. Recently, we conceptualized a new type of cortical folding pattern called the 3-hinge gyrus (3HG), which is defined as the conjunction of gyri coming from three directions. Many studies have confirmed that 3HGs are not only widely existing on different brains, but also possess both common and individual patterns. In this work, we put further effort, based on the identified 3HGs, to establish the correspondences of individual 3HGs. We developed a learning-based embedding framework to encode individual cortical folding patterns into a group of anatomically meaningful embedding vectors (cortex2vector). Each 3HG can be represented as a combination of these embedding vectors via a set of individual specific combining coefficients. In this way, the regularity of folding pattern is encoded into the embedding vectors, while the individual variations are preserved by the multi-hop combination coefficients. Results show that the learned embeddings can simultaneously encode the commonality and individuality of cortical folding patterns, as well as robustly infer the complicated many-to-many anatomical correspondences among different brains.

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  6. The current research on cation-intercalation and conversion-type cathode materials for rechargeable aluminum batteries (RABs) is discussed in this critical review. The experimental evidence for Al 3+ intercalation in transition metal oxides, chalcogenides, MXene, and Prussian blue analogues in both chloroaluminate ionic liquids and aqueous electrolytes is analyzed to identify the true reaction mechanisms. Chevrel phase molybdenum sulfide (Mo 6 S 8 ) is the only proven intercalation material for RABs with unambiguous evidence, different understandings of the Al 3+ intercalation mechanism in Mo 6 S 8 are discussed. For conversion-type cathode materials, the discussion is focused on the conversion mechanism of metal chalcogenides, and the unique reversible oxidation mechanism of sulfur and selenium enabled by the chloroaluminate ionic liquid electrolytes. The reaction mechanisms of organic cathode materials are also discussed. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
  8. Abstract The 3-hinge gyral folding is the conjunction of gyrus crest lines from three different orientations. Previous studies have not explored the possible mechanisms of formation of such 3-hinge gyri, which are preserved across species in primate brains. We develop a biomechanical model to mimic the formation of 3-hinge patterns on a real brain and determine how special types of 3-hinge patterns form in certain areas of the model. Our computational and experimental imaging results show that most tertiary convolutions and exact locations of 3-hinge patterns after growth and folding are unpredictable, but they help explain the consistency of locations and patterns of certain 3-hinge patterns. Growing fibers within the white matter is posited as a determining factor to affect the location and shape of these 3-hinge patterns. Even if the growing fibers do not exert strong enough forces to guide gyrification directly, they still may seed a heterogeneous growth profile that leads to the formation of 3-hinge patterns in specific locations. A minor difference in initial morphology between two growing model brains can lead to distinct numbers and locations of 3-hinge patterns after folding. 
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