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  1. Thermal annealing is a widely used strategy to enhance semiconductor device performance. However, the process is complex for multi-material multi-layered semiconductor devices, where thermoelastic stresses from lattice constant and thermal expansion coefficient mismatch may create more defects than those annealed. We propose an alternate low temperature annealing technique, which utilizes the electron wind force (EWF) induced by small duty cycle high density pulsed current. To demonstrate its effectiveness, we intentionally degrade AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with accelerated OFF-state stressing to increase ON-resistance ∼182.08% and reduce drain saturation current ∼85.82% of pristine condition at a gate voltage of 0 V. We then performed the EWF annealing to recover the corresponding values back to ∼122.21% and ∼93.10%, respectively. The peak transconductance, degraded to ∼76.58% of pristine at the drain voltage of 3 V, was also recovered back to ∼92.38%. This recovery of previously degraded transport properties is attributed to approximately 80% recovery of carrier mobility, which occurs during EWF annealing. We performed synchrotron differential aperture x-ray microscopy measurements to correlate these annealing effects with the lattice structural changes. We found a reduction of lattice plane spacing of (001) planes and stress within the GaN layer under the gate region after EWF annealing, suggesting a corresponding decrease in defect density. Application of this low-temperature annealing technique for in-operando recovery of degraded electronic devices is discussed.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 3, 2024
  3. Walter et al . issue a number of critical comments on our report about the discovery of davemaoite to the end that they believe to show that our results do not provide compelling evidence for the presence of davemaoite in the type specimen and that the hosting diamond had formed in the lithosphere. Their claim is based on a misinterpretation of the diffraction data contained in the paper, an insufficient analysis of the compositional data that disregards the three-dimensional distribution of inclusions, and the arbitrary assumption that Earth’s mantle shows no lateral variations in temperature, inconsistent with state-of-the-art assessments of mantle temperature variations and with their own published results. 
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  4. Localized residual stress and elastic strain concentrations in microelectronic devices often affect the electronic performance, resistance to thermomechanical damage, and, likely, radiation tolerance. A primary challenge for the characterization of these concentrations is that they exist over sub-μm length-scales, precluding their characterization by more traditional residual stress measurement techniques. Here, we demonstrate the use of synchrotron x-ray-based differential aperture x-ray microscopy (DAXM) as a viable, non-destructive means to characterize these stress and strain concentrations in a depth-resolved manner. DAXM is used to map two-dimensional strain fields between the source and the drain in a gallium nitride (GaN) layer within high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with sub-μm spatial resolution. Strain fields at various positions in both pristine and irradiated HEMT specimens are presented in addition to a preliminary stress analysis to estimate the distribution of various stress components within the GaN layer. γ-irradiation is found to significantly reduce the lattice plane spacing in the GaN along the sample normal direction, which is attributed to radiation damage in transistor components bonded to the GaN during irradiation.

     
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  5. Calcium silicate perovskite, CaSiO 3 , is arguably the most geochemically important phase in the lower mantle, because it concentrates elements that are incompatible in the upper mantle, including the heat-generating elements thorium and uranium, which have half-lives longer than the geologic history of Earth. We report CaSiO 3 -perovskite as an approved mineral (IMA2020-012a) with the name davemaoite. The natural specimen of davemaoite proves the existence of compositional heterogeneity within the lower mantle. Our observations indicate that davemaoite also hosts potassium in addition to uranium and thorium in its structure. Hence, the regional and global abundances of davemaoite influence the heat budget of the deep mantle, where the mineral is thermodynamically stable. 
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  6. Abstract

    Crystallographic defects exist in many redox active energy materials, e.g., battery and catalyst materials, which significantly alter their chemical properties for energy storage and conversion. However, there is lack of quantitative understanding of the interrelationship between crystallographic defects and redox reactions. Herein, crystallographic defects, such as geometrically necessary dislocations, are reported to influence the redox reactions in battery particles through single‐particle, multimodal, and in situ synchrotron measurements. Through Laue X‐ray microdiffraction, many crystallographic defects are spatially identified and statistically quantified from a large quantity of diffraction patterns in many layered oxide particles, including geometrically necessary dislocations, tilt boundaries, and mixed defects. The in situ and ex situ measurements, combining microdiffraction and X‐ray spectroscopy imaging, reveal that LiCoO2particles with a higher concentration of geometrically necessary dislocations provide deeper charging reactions, indicating that dislocations may facilitate redox reactions in layered oxides during initial charging. The present study illustrates that a precise control of crystallographic defects and their distribution can potentially promote and homogenize redox reactions in battery materials.

     
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