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  1. This article proposes a matrix auto-transformer switched-capacitor dc–dc converter to achieve a high voltage conversion ratio, high efficiency, and high power density for 48-V data-center applications. On the high-voltage side, the proposed converter can fully leverage the benefits of high-performance low voltage stress devices similar to the multilevel modular switched-capacitor converter. Compared with the traditional isolated LLC converter with a matrix transformer, the proposed solution utilized a matrix autotransformer concept with merged primary and secondary side windings, thus leading to reduced transformer winding loss. The resonant inductor could be integrated into the transformer similar to the LLC converter. Because of the matrix autotransformer design, it can achieve a current doubler rectifier on the low voltage side. For less than 8-V low output voltage application, the current doubler rectifier design can fully utilize the best figure-of-merit 25-V device, which is more efficient than the full-bridge rectifier solution using two 25-V devices during the operation. All the devices can achieve zero voltage switching or zero current switching and can be naturally clamped without additional clamping circuits. A 500-W 48-V to 6-V dc–dc converter hardware prototype has been developed with optimized device selection and integrated matrix autotransformer design. Both simulation and experiment results have been provided to validate the features and benefits of the proposed converter. The maximum efficiency of the proposed converter can reach 98.33%. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Urban vegetation experiences multiple natural and human impacts during urbanization, including land conversion, local environmental factors, and human management, which may bring positive or negative impacts on vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP) at multiple scales. In this study, we analyzed the spatial-temporal changes of GPP and three urbanization factors: land urbanization (impervious surface coverage), population urbanization (Population), and economic urbanization Gross domestic product (GDP) at city-district-grid scales in Beijing during 2000–2018. Overall, both GPP and three urbanization factors showed an increased trend. The relationships between GPP and urbanization factors exhibit diverse characteristics at multiple scales: unlike the linear relationship observed at city scale, the relationships at district and grid scales all demonstrated nonlinear relationship, even a U shape between GPP and population/GDP. Furthermore, the positive impact of urbanization on GPP increased and offset the negative impact of land conversion from 9.9% in 2000 to 35% in 2018, indicating that urban management and climate during urbanization effectively promote vegetation photosynthesis and neutralize the negative impact of urban area expansion. Our findings highlight the increased growth offset by urbanization on vegetation and the importance of analysis at a finer scale. Understanding these urbanization types’ impact on vegetation is pivotal in formulating comprehensive strategies that foster sustainable urban development and preserve ecological balance.

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  3. Switched Tank Converter(STC) is one kind of Resonant Switch Capacitor(ReSC) that can be considered as a good candidate for data center application with high power efficiency and high power density. On the other hand, LLC converter can also realize very good performance for low voltage application. Although STC can realize relatively higher efficiency than LLC converter in the light load since the core loss is saved, LLC can keep relatively higher efficiency in the heavy load than STC does since the conduction loss of LLC is smaller. The main reason is because transformer’s winding resistance is smaller than semiconductor devices’ resistance, and this is very important for high current application.In order to utilize the benefits of the STC and the LLC converter together, this paper proposes a family of the novel Switch Capacitor based Integrated Matrix Autotransformer LLC Converters (SCIMAC). The proposed converters share the same high voltage side circuit of the STC with low voltage stress devices. Different from the traditional LLC converter with an isolated transformer, the proposed SCIMAC utilizes one autotransformer with only the secondary side windings similar to LLC's secondary side. There are several advantages that can be realized of the SCIMAC: 1). Low figure of merit (FOM) devices can be adopted to realize higher efficiency due to the low voltage stress of the SCIMAC. 2). Higher power efficiency can be realized when compared with STC converter in heavy load because the resistance of the autotransformer’s windings is lower than semiconductor devices’ resistance. 3). The primary side winding loss of the transformer is saved to further increase the efficiency. 4) ZVS turning on can be realized by the magnetizing current of the core. 
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  4. Cascaded Connected Microinverter (CCM) system takes the advantage of adapting low voltage stress submodules to build the high voltage output, which makes it easier and safer to achieve for many applications. The distribution of active and reactive power in the CCM system has always been interdependent, resulting in additional communication components in different submodules. Such communication components within different submodules can be avoided by droop control. Droop control is widely adopted in parallel inverter system, and it originates from the synchronous generator that active power is controlled by adjusting synchronous generator's frequency and reactive power is controlled by adjusting its output voltage. However, the traditional droop control is not suitable for the cascaded microinverter inverter system. Therefore, it's necessary to modify the droop control to make it suitable for Cascaded Microinverter system, and therefore a control method called inverse droop control is adopted for cascaded inverter system under island mode. However, it requires a large feeder inductor when it's grid connected since every submodule works as voltage source inverter. In this paper, a duality control method that feedbacks each submodule's active power and reactive power to adjust its inductor current amplitude and frequency respectively is proposed. Compared with traditional cascaded inverter system that's controlled by inverse droop control method, the big line frequency feeder inductor is saved. 
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  5. Urbanization affects vegetation within city administrative boundary and nearby rural areas. Gross primary production (GPP) of vegetation in global urban areas is one of important metrics for assessing the impacts of urbanization on terrestrial ecosystems. To date, very limited data and information on the spatial-temporal dynamics of GPP in the global urban areas are available. In this study, we reported the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of annual GPP during 2000–2016 from 8,182 gridcells (0.5° by 0.5° latitude and longitude) that have various proportion of urban areas. Approximately 79.3% of these urban gridcells had increasing trends of annual GPP during 2000-2016. As urban area proportion (%) within individual urban gridcells increased, the means of annual GPP trends also increased. Our results suggested that for those urban gridcells, the negative effect of urban expansion (often measured by impervious surfaces) on GPP was to large degree compensated by increased vegetation within the gridcells, mostly driven by urban management and local climate and environment. Our findings on the continued increases of annual GPP in most of urban gridcells shed new insight on the importance of urban areas on terrestrial carbon cycle and the potential of urban management and local climate and environment on improving vegetation in urban areas. 
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