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  1. There is a need for the development of effective treatments for focal articular cartilage injuries. We previously developed a multiphasic 3D-bioplotted osteochondral scaffold design that can drive site-specific tissue formation when seeded with adipose-derived stem cells (ASC). The objective of this study was to evaluate this scaffold in a large animal model. Osteochondral defects were generated in the trochlear groove of Yucatan minipigs and repaired with scaffolds that either contained or lacked an electrospun tidemark and were either unseeded or seeded with ASC. Implants were monitored via computed tomography (CT) over the course of 4 months of in vivo implantation and compared to both open lesions and autologous explants. ICRS II evaluation indicated that defects with ASC-seeded scaffolds had healing that most closely resembled the aulogous explant. Scaffold-facilitated subchondral bone repair mimicked the structure of native bone tissue, but cartilage matrix staining was not apparent within the scaffold. The open lesions had the highest volumetric infill detected using CT analysis (p < 0.05), but the repair tissue was largely disorganized. The acellular scaffold without a tidemark had significantly more volumetric filling than either the acellular or ASC seeded groups containing a tidemark (p < 0.05), suggesting that the tidemark limited cell infiltrationmore »into the cartilage portion of the scaffold. Overall, scaffold groups repaired the defect more successfully than an open lesion but achieved limited repair in the cartilage region. With further optimization, this approach holds potential to treat focal cartilage lesions in a highly personalized manner using a human patient's own ASC cells.« less
  2. The College of Engineering at the University of Missouri, Columbia (MU Engineering) develops engineering leaders who positively influence society and bring innovation to the global workforce. Recruiting top students from around the world to fuel an atmosphere of excellence and cutting-edge growth, MU Engineering prepares out-of-the-box thinkers, innovators, and entrepreneurs who stand ready to lead today and adapt to tomorrow. To engage all of our students with industry in an inclusive space, the MU Engineering Office of Diversity and Outreach Initiatives established the Diverse Engineering Professionals Conference in 2017 in partnership with a student committee. The committee included representatives from various organizations, including the National Society of Black Engineers, Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers, Engineering Student Council, Society of Women Engineers, and Out in STEM. Industrial sponsorships were secured with assistance from the MU Engineering Leadership, Engagement and Career Development Academy. The daylong conference recognizes diversity organizations and diverse students and their achievements while promoting our core college values of integrity, excellence, and collaboration. The conference includes professional development and diversity education workshops, research presentations, keynote speakers, and a closing ceremony. In its first year, the conference featured nine companies and attracted about 75 attendees. In year two, the conferencemore »nearly doubled its impact with 12 companies and 150 attendees, including students from all majors, years, and demographics. The conference was well received across both years and continues to grow as an annual effort in the college. Feedback from company representatives and students re-emphasized the need for an intimate company-student environment like that found at the Diverse Engineering Professionals Conference.« less
  3. Advances in mechanobiology have evolved through insights from multiple disciplines including structural engineering, biomechanics, vascular biology, and orthopaedics. In this paper, we reviewed the impact of key reports related to the study of applied loads on tissues and cells and the resulting signal transduction pathways. We addressed how technology has helped advance the burgeoning field of mechanobiology (over 33,600 publications from 1970 to 2016). We analyzed the impact of critical ideas and then determined how these concepts influenced the mechanobiology field by looking at the citation frequency of these reports as well as tracking how the overall number of citations within the field changed over time. These data allowed us to understand how a key publication, idea, or technology guided or enabled the field. Initial observations of how forces acted on bone and soft tissues stimulated the development of computational solutions defining how forces affect tissue modeling and remodeling. Enabling technologies, such as cell and tissue stretching, compression, and shear stress devices, allowed more researchers to explore how deformation and fluid flow affect cells. Observation of the cell as a tensegrity structure and advanced methods to study genetic regulation in cells further advanced knowledge of specific mechanisms of mechanotransduction. Themore »future of the field will involve developing gene and drug therapies to simulate or augment beneficial load regimens in patients and in mechanically conditioning organs for implantation. Here, we addressed a history of the field, but we limited our discussions to advances in musculoskeletal mechanobiology, primarily in bone, tendon, and ligament tissues.« less