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  1. Abstract Structural health monitoring (SHM) is the automation of the condition assessment process of an engineered system. When applied to geometrically large components or structures, such as those found in civil and aerospace infrastructure and systems, a critical challenge is in designing the sensing solution that could yield actionable information. This is a difficult task to conduct cost-effectively, because of the large surfaces under consideration and the localized nature of typical defects and damages. There have been significant research efforts in empowering conventional measurement technologies for applications to SHM in order to improve performance of the condition assessment process. Yet, the field implementation of these SHM solutions is still in its infancy, attributable to various economic and technical challenges. The objective of this Roadmap publication is to discuss modern measurement technologies that were developed for SHM purposes, along with their associated challenges and opportunities, and to provide a path to research and development efforts that could yield impactful field applications. The Roadmap is organized into four sections: distributed embedded sensing systems, distributed surface sensing systems, multifunctional materials, and remote sensing. Recognizing that many measurement technologies may overlap between sections, we define distributed sensing solutions as those that involve or imply the utilization of numbers of sensors geometrically organized within (embedded) or over (surface) the monitored component or system. Multi-functional materials are sensing solutions that combine multiple capabilities, for example those also serving structural functions. Remote sensing are solutions that are contactless, for example cell phones, drones, and satellites. It also includes the notion of remotely controlled robots. 
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  2. The measurement of vital signs (such as respiration rate, body temperature, pulse, and blood pressure), especially during strenuous activities, is essential for physical performance and health monitoring. A variety of wearable chest band sensors have been developed, commercialized, and widely used in consumer and healthcare settings. The plethora of technology choices also means that each unique chest band sensor may require different data acquisition hardware and software systems, and data may not be transferable between platforms. Therefore, the objective of this work was to develop a low-cost, disposable, respiration sensor that could be attached onto any elastic chest band. The approach was to spray-coat graphene nanosheet (GNS)-based thin films onto unidirectionally stretchable elastic fabric to form a piezoresistive material. Snap buttons were incorporated at the ends of the fabric so that they could be attached onto any chest band, removed at any time, and replaced for a new data collection event. The resistive nature of the nanocomposite sensor means that they can be easily interfaced (e.g., using a voltage divider) with any existing data acquisition (DAQ) module while adding respiration monitoring capabilities. To facilitate testing of these nanocomposite respiration sensors, a miniature DAQ module with four sensing channels was also prototyped. Then, tests were performed with human subjects wearing a nanocomposite chest band and a reference commercial respiration monitoring chest band. Simultaneous measurements of subject respiration verified the respiration monitoring performance of these low-cost, disposable, nanocomposite fabric sensors. 
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  3. In this work, a mechanical vibrational analysis of an ultrasonic atomizer is carried out to control its atomization mass transfer rate. An ultrasonic atomizer is a device constructed with a piezoelectric ring coupled to a metallic circular thin plate with micro-apertures. The mechanism of mass transfer by atomization is a complex phenomenon to model because of the coupling effect between the fluid transfer and dynamic mechanics controlled by a piezoelectric vibrating ring element. Here, the effect of the micro-apertures shape of the meshed thin plate coupled to a piezoelectric ring during vibration, as well as the resonance frequency modes, are numerically studied using a finite element analysis and compared with theoretical and experimental results. Good correlations between the predicted and experimental results of the resonant frequencies and atomization rates were found. 
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  4. Abstract

    The objective of this study is to derive a numerical model of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based thin films that accurately reflect their electrical and electromechanical performance as observed through experimental tests. Although nanocomposites based on CNTs dispersed in polymer matrices have been studied extensively, their nanocomposite properties vary depending on CNT orientations. This study aimed to explain how differences in nanocomposite behavior could be revealed by numerical models considering different CNT alignment conditions. First, a percolation-based thin film model was generated by randomly dispersing CNT elements in a predefined two-dimensional domain. The degree of CNT alignment in the film was controlled by limiting the CNT elements’ maximum angle they make with respect to the film’s longitudinal axis. Then, numerical simulations on CNT-based film models were conducted. Second, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-epoxy films were prepared via drop casting. Alternating current was applied to the MWCNT-epoxy mixture before curing to prepare films with different degrees of CNT alignment. The electrical and electromechanical properties of these specimens were characterized, and the results were compared with simulations. Good agreement between experiments and simulations was observed.

     
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  6. Abstract

    A novel approach to leverage the extraordinary properties of graphene for designing thin film strain sensors is demonstrated. Graphene nanosheets (GNS) are produced from graphite by a liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) method using water along withN‐methylpyrrolidinone (NMP) as cosolvents. It is found that the water‐NMP solvent system enhances the exfoliation yield and the stability of the GNS dispersion, thereby lowering the number of defects in the GNS basal plane. Both LPE‐based GNS and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) are synthesized for fabricating thin film strain sensors and for comparison purposes. Detailed micro‐Raman, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that the as‐produced GNS exhibits lower defects than RGO nanosheets. The strain sensing study reveals that strain sensors fabricated using low‐defect GNS exhibit enhanced electrical and electromechanical properties, including higher electrical conductivity, lower noise floor, and more stable electromechanical response as compared to RGO‐based sensors.

     
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