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  1. Homodimeric class 1 cytokine receptors include the erythropoietin (EPOR), thrombopoietin (TPOR), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF3R), growth hormone (GHR), and prolactin receptors (PRLR). These cell-surface single-pass transmembrane (TM) glycoproteins regulate cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation and induce oncogenesis. An active TM signaling complex consists of a receptor homodimer, one or two ligands bound to the receptor extracellular domains and two molecules of Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) constitutively associated with the receptor intracellular domains. Although crystal structures of soluble extracellular domains with ligands have been obtained for all the receptors except TPOR, little is known about the structure and dynamics of the complete TM complexes that activate the downstream JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Three-dimensional models of five human receptor complexes with cytokines and JAK2 were generated here using AlphaFold Multimer. Given the large size of the complexes (from 3220 to 4074 residues), the modeling required a stepwise assembly from smaller parts with selection and validation of the models through comparisons with published experimental data. The modeling of active and inactive complexes supports a general activation mechanism that involves ligand binding to a monomeric receptor followed by receptor dimerization and rotational movement of the receptor TM α-helices causing proximity, dimerization, and activation of associated JAK2 subunits. The binding mode of two eltrombopag molecules to TM α-helices of the active TPOR dimer was proposed. The models also help elucidating the molecular basis of oncogenic mutations that may involve a non-canonical activation route. Models equilibrated in explicit lipids of the plasma membrane are publicly available. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 11, 2024
  2. Abstract

    The Membranome database provides comprehensive structural information on single‐pass (i.e., bitopic) membrane proteins from six evolutionarily distant organisms, including protein–protein interactions, complexes, mutations, experimental structures, and models of transmembrane α‐helical dimers. We present a new version of this database, Membranome 3.0, which was significantly updated by revising the set of 5,758 bitopic proteins and incorporating models generated by AlphaFold 2 in the database. The AlphaFold models were parsed into structural domains located at the different membrane sides, modified to exclude low‐confidence unstructured terminal regions and signal sequences, validated through comparison with available experimental structures, and positioned with respect to membrane boundaries. Membranome 3.0 was re‐developed to facilitate visualization and comparative analysis of multiple 3D structures of proteins that belong to a specified family, complex, biological pathway, or membrane type. New tools for advanced search and analysis of proteins, their interactions, complexes, and mutations were included. The database is freely accessible at

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