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  1. null (Ed.)
  2. Abstract

    The QCD axion is a particle postulated to exist since the 1970s to explain the strong-CP problem in particle physics. It could also account for all of the observed dark matter in the Universe. The axion resonant interaction detection experiment (ARIADNE) intends to detect the QCD axion by sensing the fictitious ‘magnetic field’ created by its coupling to spin. Short-range axion-mediated interactions can occur between a sample of laser-polarized3He nuclear spins and an unpolarized source-mass sprocket. The experiment must be sensitive to magnetic fields below the 10−19T level to achieve its design sensitivity, necessitating tight control of the experiment’s magnetic environment. We describe a method for controlling three aspects of that environment which would otherwise limit the experimental sensitivity. Firstly, a system of superconducting magnetic shielding is described to screen ordinary magnetic noise from the sample volume at the 108level, which should be sufficient to reduce the contribution of Johnson noise in the sprocket-shaped source mass, expected to be at the 10−12T/Hzlevel, to below the threshold for signal detection. Secondly, a method for reducing magnetic field gradients within the sample up to 102times is described, using a simple and cost-effective design geometry. Thirdly, a novel coil design is introduced which allows the generation of fields similar to those produced by Helmholtz coils in regions directly abutting superconducting boundaries. This method allows the nuclear Larmor frequency of the sample to be tuned to match the axion field modulation frequency set by the sprocket rotation. Finally, we experimentally investigate the magnetic shielding factor of sputtered thin-film superconducting niobium on quartz substrates for various geometries and film thicknesses relevant for the ARIADNE axion experiment using SQUID magnetometry. The methods may be generally useful for magnetic field control near superconducting boundaries in other experiments where similar considerations apply.

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  3. Abstract

    Methods commonly used to estimate net primary production (NPP) from satellite observations are now being applied to biogeochemical (BGC) profiling float observations. Insights can be gained from regional differences in float and satellite NPP estimates that reveal gaps in our understanding and guide future NPP model development. We use 7 years of BGC profiling float data from the Northeast Pacific Ocean to quantify discrepancies between float and satellite NPP estimates and decompose them into contributions associated with the platform sensing method and depth resolution of observations. We find small, systematic seasonal discrepancies in the depth‐integrated NPP (iNPP) but much larger (>±100%) discrepancies in depth‐resolved NPP. Annual iNPP estimates from the two platforms are significantly, positively correlated, suggesting that they similarly track interannual variability in the study region. Using the long‐term satellite iNPP record, we identify elevated annual iNPP during two recent marine heatwaves and gain insights about ecosystem functionality.

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  4. Abstract The XENONnT detector uses the latest and largest liquid xenon-based time projection chamber (TPC) operated by the XENON Collaboration, aimed at detecting Weakly Interacting Massive Particles and conducting other rare event searches.The XENONnT data acquisition (DAQ) system constitutes an upgraded and expanded version of the XENON1T DAQ system.For its operation, it relies predominantly on commercially available hardware accompanied by open-source and custom-developed software.The three constituent subsystems of the XENONnT detector, the TPC (main detector), muon veto, and the newly introduced neutron veto, are integrated into a single DAQ, and can be operated both independently and as a unified system.In total, the DAQ digitizes the signals of 698 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), of which 253 from the top PMT array of the TPC are digitized twice, at ×10 and ×0.5 gain.The DAQ for the most part is a triggerless system, reading out and storing every signal that exceeds the digitization thresholds.Custom-developed software is used to process the acquired data, making it available within ∼30 s for live data quality monitoring and online analyses.The entire system with all the three subsystems was successfully commissioned and has been operating continuously, comfortably withstanding readout rates that exceed ∼500 MB/s during calibration.Livetime during normal operation exceeds 99% and is ∼90% during most high-rate calibrations.The combined DAQ system has collected more than 2 PB of both calibration and science data during the commissioning of XENONnT and the first science run. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024