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  1. Abstract. Atmospheric aerosols are a significant public health hazard and havesubstantial impacts on the climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) havebeen shown to phase separate into a highly viscous organic outer layersurrounding an aqueous core. This phase separation can decrease thepartitioning of semi-volatile and low-volatile species to the organic phaseand alter the extent of acid-catalyzed reactions in the aqueous core. A newalgorithm that can determine SOA phase separation based on their glasstransition temperature (Tg), oxygen to carbon (O:C) ratio and organic massto sulfate ratio, and meteorological conditions was implemented into theCommunity Multiscale Air Quality Modeling (CMAQ) system version 5.2.1 andwas used to simulate the conditions in the continental United States for thesummer of 2013. SOA formed at the ground/surface level was predicted to bephase separated with core–shell morphology, i.e., aqueous inorganic coresurrounded by organic coating 65.4 % of the time during the 2013 SouthernOxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) on average in the isoprene-rich southeasternUnited States. Our estimate is in proximity to the previously reported∼70 % in literature. The phase states of organic coatingsswitched between semi-solid and liquid states, depending on theenvironmental conditions. The semi-solid shell occurring with lower aerosolliquid water content (western United States and at higher altitudes) has aviscosity that was predicted tomore »be 102–1012 Pa s, whichresulted in organic mass being decreased due to diffusion limitation.Organic aerosol was primarily liquid where aerosol liquid water was dominant(eastern United States and at the surface), with a viscosity <102 Pa s.Phase separation while in a liquid phase state, i.e.,liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS), also reduces reactive uptake ratesrelative to homogeneous internally mixed liquid morphology but was lowerthan aerosols with a thick viscous organic shell. The sensitivity casesperformed with different phase-separation parameterization and dissolutionrate of isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) into the particle phase in CMAQ can havevarying impact on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) organic mass, interms of bias and error compared to field data collected during the 2013 SOAS.This highlights the need to better constrain the parameters thatgovern phase state and morphology of SOA, as well as expand mechanisticrepresentation of multiphase chemistry for non-IEPOX SOA formation in modelsaided by novel experimental insights.« less
  2. Abstract. We present a comprehensive simulation of tropospheric chlorinewithin the GEOS-Chem global 3-D model of oxidant–aerosol–halogen atmosphericchemistry. The simulation includes explicit accounting of chloridemobilization from sea salt aerosol by acid displacement of HCl and by otherheterogeneous processes. Additional small sources of tropospheric chlorine(combustion, organochlorines, transport from stratosphere) are also included.Reactive gas-phase chlorine Cl*, including Cl, ClO, Cl2, BrCl, ICl,HOCl, ClNO3, ClNO2, and minor species, is produced by theHCl+OH reaction and by heterogeneous conversion of sea salt aerosolchloride to BrCl, ClNO2, Cl2, and ICl. The modelsuccessfully simulates the observed mixing ratios of HCl in marine air(highest at northern midlatitudes) and the associated HNO3decrease from acid displacement. It captures the high ClNO2 mixingratios observed in continental surface air at night and attributes thechlorine to HCl volatilized from sea salt aerosol and transported inlandfollowing uptake by fine aerosol. The model successfully simulates thevertical profiles of HCl measured from aircraft, where enhancements in thecontinental boundary layer can again be largely explained by transport inlandof the marine source. It does not reproduce the boundary layer Cl2mixing ratios measured in the WINTER aircraft campaign (1–5 ppt in thedaytime, low at night); the model is too high at night, which could be due touncertainty in the rate ofmore »the ClNO2+Cl- reaction, but we haveno explanation for the high observed Cl2 in daytime. The globalmean tropospheric concentration of Cl atoms in the model is 620 cm−3and contributes 1.0 % of the global oxidation of methane, 20 % ofethane, 14 % of propane, and 4 % of methanol. Chlorine chemistryincreases global mean tropospheric BrO by 85 %, mainly through theHOBr+Cl- reaction, and decreases global burdens of troposphericozone by 7 % and OH by 3 % through the associated bromine radicalchemistry. ClNO2 chemistry drives increases in ozone of up to8 ppb over polluted continents in winter.« less