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  1. Bin Dong, Qianxiao Li (Ed.)
  2. Efficient simulation of SDEs is essential in many applications, particularly for ergodic systems that demand efficient simulation of both short-time dynamics and large-time statistics. However, locally Lipschitz SDEs often require special treatments such as implicit schemes with small time-steps to accurately simulate the ergodic measures. We introduce a framework to construct inference-based schemes adaptive to large time-steps (ISALT) from data, achieving a reduction in time by several orders of magnitudes. The key is the statistical learning of an approximation to the infinite-dimensional discrete-time flow map. We explore the use of numerical schemes (such as the Euler-Maruyama, the hybrid RK4, and an implicit scheme) to derive informed basis functions, leading to a parameter inference problem. We introduce a scalable algorithm to estimate the parameters by least squares, and we prove the convergence of the estimators as data size increases.

    We test the ISALT on three non-globally Lipschitz SDEs: the 1D double-well potential, a 2D multiscale gradient system, and the 3D stochastic Lorenz equation with a degenerate noise. Numerical results show that ISALT can tolerate time-step magnitudes larger than plain numerical schemes. It reaches optimal accuracy in reproducing the invariant measure when the time-step is medium-large.

     
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract We consider stochastic systems of interacting particles or agents, with dynamics determined by an interaction kernel, which only depends on pairwise distances. We study the problem of inferring this interaction kernel from observations of the positions of the particles, in either continuous or discrete time, along multiple independent trajectories. We introduce a nonparametric inference approach to this inverse problem, based on a regularized maximum likelihood estimator constrained to suitable hypothesis spaces adaptive to data. We show that a coercivity condition enables us to control the condition number of this problem and prove the consistency of our estimator, and that in fact it converges at a near-optimal learning rate, equal to the min–max rate of one-dimensional nonparametric regression. In particular, this rate is independent of the dimension of the state space, which is typically very high. We also analyze the discretization errors in the case of discrete-time observations, showing that it is of order 1/2 in terms of the time spacings between observations. This term, when large, dominates the sampling error and the approximation error, preventing convergence of the estimator. Finally, we exhibit an efficient parallel algorithm to construct the estimator from data, and we demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm with numerical tests on prototype systems including stochastic opinion dynamics and a Lennard-Jones model. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    We present a class of efficient parametric closure models for 1D stochastic Burgers equations. Casting it as statistical learning of the flow map, we derive the parametric form by representing the unresolved high wavenumber Fourier modes as functionals of the resolved variable’s trajectory. The reduced models are nonlinear autoregression (NAR) time series models, with coefficients estimated from data by least squares. The NAR models can accurately reproduce the energy spectrum, the invariant densities, and the autocorrelations. Taking advantage of the simplicity of the NAR models, we investigate maximal space-time reduction. Reduction in space dimension is unlimited, and NAR models with two Fourier modes can perform well. The NAR model’s stability limits time reduction, with a maximal time step smaller than that of the K-mode Galerkin system. We report a potential criterion for optimal space-time reduction: the NAR models achieve minimal relative error in the energy spectrum at the time step, where the K-mode Galerkin system’s mean Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) number agrees with that of the full model. 
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  5. null (Ed.)