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  1. A bstract The Kähler potentials of modular symmetry models receive unsuppressed contributions which may be controlled by a flavor symmetry, where the combination of the two symmetry types is referred to as eclectic flavor symmetry. After briefly reviewing the consistency conditions of eclectic flavor symmetry models, including those with generalised (g)CP, we perform a comprehensive bottom-up study of eclectic flavor symmetry models based on Ω(1) ≅ ∆(27) ⋊ T ′, consisting of the flavor symmetry ∆(27) in a semi-direct product with the modular symmetry T ′. The modular transformations of different ∆(27) multiplets are given by solving the consistency condition. The eight nontrivial singlets of ∆(27) are related by T ′ modular symmetry, and they have to be present or absent simultaneously in any Ω(1) model. The most general forms of the superpotential and Kähler potential invariant under Ω(1) are discussed, and the corresponding fermion mass matrices are presented. Based on the eclectic flavor group Ω(1), two concrete lepton models which can successfully describe the experimental data of lepton masses and mixing parameters are constructed. For the two models without gCP, all six mixing parameters vary in small regions. A nearly maximal atmospheric mixing angle θ 23 and Dirac CPmore »phase δ CP are obtained in the first model. After considering the compatible gCP symmetry and the assumption of $$ \mathfrak{R}\tau $$ R τ = 0 in the first model, the μ − τ reflection symmetry is preserved in the charged lepton diagonal basis. As a consequence, the atmospheric mixing angle and Dirac CP phase are predicted to be maximal, and two Majorana CP phases are predicted to be π .« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  4. Abstract Background

    China’s terrestrial ecosystems play a pronounced role in the global carbon cycle. Here we combine spatially-explicit information on vegetation, soil, topography, climate and land use change with a process-based biogeochemistry model to quantify the responses of terrestrial carbon cycle in China during the 20th century.


    At a century scale, China’s terrestrial ecosystems have acted as a carbon sink averaging at 96 Tg C yr− 1, with large inter-annual and decadal variabilities. The regional sink has been enhanced due to the rising temperature and CO2concentration, with a slight increase trend in carbon sink strength along with the enhanced net primary production in the century. The areas characterized by C source are simulated to extend in the west and north of the Hu Huanyong line, while the eastern and southern regions increase their area and intensity of C sink, particularly in the late 20th century. Forest ecosystems dominate the C sink in China and are responsible for about 64% of the total sink. On the century scale, the increase in carbon sinks in China’s terrestrial ecosystems is mainly contributed by rising CO2. Afforestation and reforestation promote an increase in terrestrial carbon uptake in China from 1950s. Although climate change has generally contributedmore »to the increase of carbon sinks in terrestrial ecosystems in China, the positive effect of climate change has been diminishing in the last decades of the 20th century.


    This study focuses on the impacts of climate, CO2and land use change on the carbon cycle, and presents the potential trends of terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance in China at a century scale. While a slight increase in carbon sink strength benefits from the enhanced vegetation carbon uptake in China’s terrestrial ecosystems during the 20th century, the increase trend may diminish or even change to a decrease trend under future climate change.

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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 8, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  7. Controlling nanoporosity to favorably alter multiple properties in layered crystalline inorganic thin films is a challenge. Here, we demonstrate that the thermoelectric and mechanical properties of Ca 3 Co 4 O 9 films can be engineered through nanoporosity control by annealing multiple Ca(OH) 2 /Co 3 O 4 reactant bilayers with characteristic bilayer thicknesses (b t ). Our results show that doubling b t , e.g. , from 12 to 26 nm, more than triples the average pore size from ∼120 nm to ∼400 nm and increases the pore fraction from 3% to 17.1%. The higher porosity film exhibits not only a 50% higher electrical conductivity of σ ∼ 90 S cm −1 and a high Seebeck coefficient of α ∼ 135 μV K −1 , but also a thermal conductivity as low as κ ∼ 0.87 W m −1 K −1 . The nanoporous Ca 3 Co 4 O 9 films exhibit greater mechanical compliance and resilience to bending than the bulk. These results indicate that annealing reactant multilayers with controlled thicknesses is an attractive way to engineer nanoporosity and realize mechanically flexible oxide-based thermoelectric materials.