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  1. Abstract

    Persistent precipitation deficits are among the most impactful consequences of global warming. Here we focus on changes in the annual number of dry days (NDD) and in the annual maximum length of dry spells due to a quadrupling of atmospheric CO2. We use atmosphere‐only simulations to decompose the projected changes into additive contributions. A fast adjustment leads to a global increase in NDD despite notable regional exceptions (e.g., South Asia and Sahel). The effect of the uniform component of the surface ocean warming is model‐dependent but shapes the regional distribution of the NDD response in each model. Finally, the ocean warming pattern also contributes to large uncertainties, likely through contrasting changes in large‐scale circulation. Our results thus highlight the complexity of the NDD response, with policy‐relevant practical implications for mitigation and adaptation strategies.

     
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  2. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    A summary of the constraints from searches performed by the ATLAS collaboration for the electroweak production of charginos and neutralinos is presented. Results from eight separate ATLAS searches are considered, each using 140 fb1of proton-proton data at a centre-of-mass energy of$$ \sqrt{s} $$s= 13 TeV collected at the Large Hadron Collider during its second data-taking run. The results are interpreted in the context of the 19-parameter phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model, whereR-parity conservation is assumed and the lightest supersymmetric particle is assumed to be the lightest neutralino. Constraints from previous electroweak, flavour and dark matter related measurements are also considered. The results are presented in terms of constraints on supersymmetric particle masses and are compared with limits from simplified models. Also shown is the impact of ATLAS searches on parameters such as the dark matter relic density and the spin-dependent and spin-independent scattering cross-sections targeted by direct dark matter detection experiments. The Higgs boson andZboson ‘funnel regions’, where a low-mass neutralino would not oversaturate the dark matter relic abundance, are almost completely excluded by the considered constraints. Example spectra for non-excluded supersymmetric models with light charginos and neutralinos are also presented.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  3. Abstract

    The ATLAS detector is installed in its experimental cavern at Point 1 of the CERN Large Hadron Collider. During Run 2 of the LHC, a luminosity of  ℒ = 2 × 1034cm-2s-1was routinely achieved at the start of fills, twice the design luminosity. For Run 3, accelerator improvements, notably luminosity levelling, allow sustained running at an instantaneous luminosity of  ℒ = 2 × 1034cm-2s-1, with an average of up to 60 interactions per bunch crossing. The ATLAS detector has been upgraded to recover Run 1 single-lepton trigger thresholds while operating comfortably under Run 3 sustained pileup conditions. A fourth pixel layer 3.3 cm from the beam axis was added before Run 2 to improve vertex reconstruction and b-tagging performance. New Liquid Argon Calorimeter digital trigger electronics, with corresponding upgrades to the Trigger and Data Acquisition system, take advantage of a factor of 10 finer granularity to improve triggering on electrons, photons, taus, and hadronic signatures through increased pileup rejection. The inner muon endcap wheels were replaced by New Small Wheels with Micromegas and small-strip Thin Gap Chamber detectors, providing both precision tracking and Level-1 Muon trigger functionality. Trigger coverage of the inner barrel muon layer near one endcap region was augmented with modules integrating new thin-gap resistive plate chambers and smaller-diameter drift-tube chambers. Tile Calorimeter scintillation counters were added to improve electron energy resolution and background rejection. Upgrades to Minimum Bias Trigger Scintillators and Forward Detectors improve luminosity monitoring and enable total proton-proton cross section, diffractive physics, and heavy ion measurements. These upgrades are all compatible with operation in the much harsher environment anticipated after the High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC and are the first steps towards preparing ATLAS for the High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC. This paper describes the Run 3 configuration of the ATLAS detector.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  4. The analysis of membranous extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes vesicles (EV) opens a new direction for the rapid disease diagnosis because EVs can carry molecular constituents of their originating cells. Secreted by mammalian cells, the size of most membrane-bound phospholipid EVs ranges from 50 to 150 nm in diameter. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of using EVs for cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring. To diagnose infectious diseases using EVs, the ability to discriminate EVs from host cells and parasites is key. Here, we report a rapid EV analysis assay that can discriminate EVs based on a host-specific transmembrane protein (CD63 antigen) using a label-free optical biosensor. 
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  5. The optical resonances of the silicon nanopost array patterned on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate have been investigated. The fabricated device supports optical resonances in the range of 1.55 μm with a variable Q factor depending on the angle of incidence. By sealing the device on top of the nanoposts, we demonstrated a lateral flow-through label-free biosensor built on SOI. The biosensor exhibits the refractive index sensitivity of 800 nm/RIU and the femtomolar sensitivity for detection of a breast cancer biomarker (ErbB2). 
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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025
  7. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    A search for pair production of squarks or gluinos decaying via sleptons or weak bosons is reported. The search targets a final state with exactly two leptons with same-sign electric charge or at least three leptons without any charge requirement. The analysed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb1of proton-proton collisions collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Multiple signal regions are defined, targeting several SUSY simplified models yielding the desired final states. A single control region is used to constrain the normalisation of theWZ+ jets background. No significant excess of events over the Standard Model expectation is observed. The results are interpreted in the context of several supersymmetric models featuring R-parity conservation or R-parity violation, yielding exclusion limits surpassing those from previous searches. In models considering gluino (squark) pair production, gluino (squark) masses up to 2.2 (1.7) TeV are excluded at 95% confidence level.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025