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  1. Lyons, T. ; Turchyn, A. ; Reinhard, C. (Ed.)
    How oxygen levels in Earth’s atmosphere and oceans evolved has always been a central question in Earth System Science. Researchers have developed numerous tracers to tackle this question, utilizing geochemical characteristics of different elements. Iodine incorporated in calcium carbonate (including biogenic) minerals, reported as I/Ca, is a proxy for dissolved oxygen in seawater. Here we review the rationale behind this proxy, its recent applications, and some potential future research directions.
  2. Recent studies have revealed the importance of outlier cells in complex cellular systems. Quantifying heterogeneity in such systems may lead to a better understanding of organ engineering, microtumor growth, and disease models, as well as more precise drug design. We used the ability of quantitative phase imaging to perform long-term imaging of cell growth to estimate the “influence” of cellular clusters on their neighbors. We validated our approach by analyzing epithelial and fibroblast cultures imaged over the course of several days. Interestingly, we found that there is a significant number of cells characterized by a medium correlation between their growthmore »rate and distance (modulus of the Pearson coefficient between 0.25-.5). Furthermore, we found a small percentage of cells exhibiting strong such correlations, which we label as “influencer” cellular clusters. Our approach might find important applications in studying dynamic phenomena, such as organogenesis and metastasis.« less