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  1. Abstract

    We present a catalog of 315 protostellar outflow candidates detected in SiOJ= 5 − 4 in the ALMA-IMF Large Program, observed with ∼2000 au spatial resolution, 0.339 km s−1velocity resolution, and 2–12 mJy beam−1(0.18–0.8 K) sensitivity. We find median outflow masses, momenta, and kinetic energies of ∼0.3M, 4Mkm s−1, and 1045erg, respectively. Median outflow lifetimes are 6000 yr, yielding median mass, momentum, and energy rates ofṀ= 10−4.4Myr−1,Ṗ= 10−3.2Mkm s−1yr−1, andĖ= 1L. We analyze these outflow properties in the aggregate in each field. We find correlations between field-aggregated SiO outflow properties and total mass in cores (∼3σ–5σ), and no correlations above 3σwith clump mass, clump luminosity, or clump luminosity-to-mass ratio. We perform a linear regression analysis and find that the correlation between field-aggregated outflow mass and total clump mass—which has been previously described in the literature—may actually be mediated by the relationship between outflow mass and total mass in cores. We also find that the most massive SiO outflow in each field is typically responsible for only 15%–30% of the total outflow mass (60% upper limit). Our data agree well with the established mechanical force−bolometric luminosity relationship in the literature, and our data extend this relationship up toL≥ 106LandṖ≥ 1Mkm s−1yr−1. Our lack of correlation with clumpL/Mis inconsistent with models of protocluster formation in which all protostars start forming at the same time.

     
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  2. Context. The origin of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) and its relation with the core mass function (CMF) are actively debated issues with important implications in astrophysics. Recent observations in the W43 molecular complex of top-heavy CMFs, with an excess of high-mass cores compared to the canonical mass distribution, raise questions about our understanding of the star formation processes and their evolution in space and time. Aims. We aim to compare populations of protostellar and prestellar cores in three regions imaged in the ALMA-IMF Large Program. Methods. We created an homogeneous core catalogue in W43, combining a new core extraction in W43-MM1 with the catalogue of W43-MM2&MM3 presented in a previous work. Our detailed search for protostellar outflows enabled us to identify between 23 and 30 protostellar cores out of 127 cores in W43-MM1 and between 42 and 51 protostellar cores out of 205 cores in W43-MM2&MM3. Cores with neither outflows nor hot core emission are classified as prestellar candidates. Results. We found a similar fraction of cores which are protostellar in the two regions, about 35%. This fraction strongly varies in mass, from f pro ≃ 15–20% at low mass, between 0.8 and 3 M ⊙ up to f pro ≃ 80% above 16 M ⊙ . Protostellar cores are found to be, on average, more massive and smaller in size than prestellar cores. Our analysis also revealed that the high-mass slope of the prestellar CMF in W43, α = -1.46 -0.19 +0.12 , is consistent with the Salpeter slope, and thus the top-heavy form measured for the global CMF, α = −0.96 ± 0.09, is due to the protostellar core population. Conclusions. Our results could be explained by ‘clump-fed’ models in which cores grow in mass, especially during the protostellar phase, through inflow from their environment. The difference between the slopes of the prestellar and protostellar CMFs moreover implies that high-mass cores grow more in mass than low-mass cores. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Context. Among the most central open questions regarding the initial mass function (IMF) of stars is the impact of environment on the shape of the core mass function (CMF) and thus potentially on the IMF. Aims. The ALMA-IMF Large Program aims to investigate the variations in the core distributions (CMF and mass segregation) with cloud characteristics, such as the density and kinematic of the gas, as diagnostic observables of the formation process and evolution of clouds. The present study focuses on the W43-MM2&MM3 mini-starburst, whose CMF has recently been found to be top-heavy with respect to the Salpeter slope of the canonical IMF. Methods. W43-MM2&MM3 is a useful test case for environmental studies because it harbors a rich cluster that contains a statistically significant number of cores (specifically, 205 cores), which was previously characterized in Paper III. We applied a multi-scale decomposition technique to the ALMA 1.3 mm and 3 mm continuum images of W43-MM2&MM3 to define six subregions, each 0.5–1 pc in size. For each subregion we characterized the probability distribution function of the high column density gas, η -PDF, using the 1.3 mm images. Using the core catalog, we investigate correlations between the CMF and cloud and core properties, such as the η -PDF and the core mass segregation. Results. We classify the W43-MM2&MM3 subregions into different stages of evolution, from quiescent to burst to post-burst, based on the surface number density of cores, number of outflows, and ultra-compact HII presence. The high-mass end (>1 M ⊙ ) of the subregion CMFs varies from close to the Salpeter slope (quiescent) to top-heavy (burst and post-burst). Moreover, the second tail of the η -PDF varies from steep (quiescent) to flat (burst and post-burst), as observed for high-mass star-forming clouds. We find that subregions with flat second η -PDF tails display top-heavy CMFs. Conclusions. In dynamical environments such as W43-MM2&MM3, the high-mass end of the CMF appears to be rooted in the cloud structure, which is at high column density and surrounds cores. This connection stems from the fact that cores and their immediate surroundings are both determined and shaped by the cloud formation process, the current evolutionary state of the cloud, and, more broadly, the star formation history. The CMF may evolve from Salpeter to top-heavy throughout the star formation process from the quiescent to the burst phase. This scenario raises the question of if the CMF might revert again to Salpeter as the cloud approaches the end of its star formation stage, a hypothesis that remains to be tested. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
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