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  1. We quantify the short-term (<30 day) variability of column O/N 2 measured by GOLD from January 2019 to August 2022 for various geomagnetic activity conditions. We find enhanced variabilities at high latitudes during active (Kp ≥ 3.0) times and weak but statistically significant variabilities at low latitudes. For active times, the largest absolute variability of O/N 2 ratio is 0.14 and the largest relative variability is 20.6% at ∼60.0°N in Fall, which are about twice those of quiet times. The variability at higher latitudes can be larger than that of lower latitudes by a factor of 5–8. We further quantify contributions of magnetospheric forcing to O/N 2 variability in the Ionosphere-Thermosphere region by correlating O/N 2 perturbations with Dst. During geomagnetic active times, positive correlations as large as +0.66 and negative correlations as large as −0.65 are found at high and low latitudes, respectively, indicative of storm-induced O and N 2 upwelling at high latitudes and down welling at low latitudes. During quiet times, correlations between O/N 2 perturbations and Dst become insignificant at all latitudes, implying a more substantial contribution from below. O/N 2 variabilities maximize in Fall and decrease towards Summer, while correlations maximize in Spring/Summer and decrease in Winter/Spring, which may be related to seasonal variations of geomagnetic activity and mean circulation. 
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  2. Abstract

    We develop a new methodology for the multi‐resolution assimilation of electric fields by extending a Gaussian process model (Lattice Kriging) used for scalar field originally to vector field. This method takes the background empirical model as “a priori” knowledge and fuses real observations under the Gaussian process framework. The comparison of assimilated results under two different background models and three different resolutions suggests that (a) the new method significantly reduces fitting errors compared with the global spherical harmonic fitting (SHF) because it uses range‐limited basis functions ideal for the local fitting and (b) the fitting resolution, determined by the number of basis functions, is adjustable and higher resolution leads to smaller errors, indicating that more structures in the data are captured. We also test the sensitivity of the fitting results to the total amount of input data: (a) as the data amount increases, the fitting results deviate from the background model and become more determined by data and (b) the impacts of data can reach remote regions with no data available. The assimilation also better captures short‐period variations in local PFISR measurements than the SHF and maintains a coherent pattern with the surrounding. The multi‐resolution Lattice Kriging is examined via attributing basis functions into multiple levels with different resolutions (fine level is located in the region with observations). Such multi‐resolution fitting has the smallest error and shortest computation time, making the regional high‐resolution modeling efficient. Our method can be modified to achieve the multi‐resolution assimilation for other vector fields from unevenly distributed observations.

     
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  4. Abstract

    Using 17 years of Modern‐Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA‐2) data, significant responses of gravity wave (GW) variances, zonal winds and parameterized GW drag to the Madden‐Julian Oscillation (MJO) are identified globally during boreal winter, and their relations are examined. The relative anomalies of GW variances range from −4% (phase 7) to 8% (phase 4) in tropics, and −20% (phase 1) to 20% (phase 5) in the northern polar region (NPR). The anomalies of zonal winds are from −3–3 m/s and −4–8 m/s in tropics and NPR, respectively. The vertical and latitudinal structures of MJO signals in GW, wind and GW drag show coherent patterns. Further analysis implies that in the NPR, the eastward wind leads to westward momentum flux carried by the GWs. This flux leads to westward drag, which drives that of zonal winds and imprint the MJO signal in GWs to the wind.

     
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  5. Abstract

    The 17‐year SABER‐observed gravity wave (GW) temperature variances reveal significant responses of GWs to the Madden‐Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the middle atmosphere (30–100 km) in tropics and extratropics (45°S to 45°N) for boreal winter. The responses vary significantly with latitude but barely with altitude. From 20°S to 45°N, strong positive anomalies are found for MJO Phases 3–5, while negative anomalies for Phases 7–8. From 45–20°S, these patterns are reversed. The peak‐to‐peak differences (positive‐to‐negative anomalies) are ~6–16% relative to the seasonal mean. Comparison with MJO modulations on tropical convection and polar vortex suggests that GW responses in tropics may result from the modulation of GW source, while responses in northern extratropics may result from the modulation of polar vortex, which in turn modulates GW activities. These results highlight the importance of GWs to imprint the tropical MJO signals vertically to the middle atmosphere and horizontally to extratropical regions.

     
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  6. The discovery of the thermosphere-ionosphere Fe (TIFe) layers has opened a door to exploring the least understood thermosphere and ionosphere region between 100 and 200 km with ground-based lidar instruments. The characteristics of the polar TIFe layers, and the impacts of the atmosphere neutral dynamics, electrodynamics, and metallic chemistry on the formation of TIFe layers deserve further investigation, especially the diurnal cycles of TIFe layers observed by lidar. This paper aims at investigating the major driving forces with 1-D Thermosphere-Ionosphere Fe/Fe + (TIFe) model. A main question to answer is whether neutral dynamics like tidal winds or electrodynamics like the convection electric fields and currents in the magnetosphere and ionosphere are responsible for the diurnal cycle of TIFe layers. 
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