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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  2. When Earth-skimming tau neutrinos interact within the Earth, they generate upgoing tau leptons that can decay in the atmosphere, forming extensive air showers. The Beamforming Elevated Array for COsmic Neutrinos (BEACON) is a novel detector concept that utilizes a radio interferometer atop a mountain to search for the radio emission due to these extensive air showers. The prototype, located at the White Mountain Research Station in California, consists of 4 crossed-dipole antennas operating in the 30-80 MHz range and uses a directional interferometric trigger for reduced thresholds and background rejection. The prototype will first be used to detect down-going cosmicmore »rays to validate the detector model. A Monte-Carlo simulation was developed to predict the acceptance of the prototype to cosmic rays, as well as the expected rate of detection. In this simulation, cosmic ray induced air showers with random properties are generated in an area around the prototype array. It is then determined if a given shower triggers the array using radio emission simulations from ZHAireS and antenna modelling from XFdtd. Here, we present the methodology and results of this simulation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 18, 2023
  3. Abstract The balloon-borne ANITA [1] experiment is designed to detect ultra-high energy neutrinos via radio emissions produced by in-ice showers. Although initially purposed for interactions within the Antarctic ice sheet, ANITA also demonstrated the ability to self-trigger on radio emissions from ultra-high energy charged cosmic rays [2] (CR) interacting in the Earth's atmosphere. For showers produced above the Antarctic ice sheet, reflection of the down-coming radio signals at the Antarctic surface should result in a polarity inversion prior to subsequent observation at the ∼35–40 km altitude ANITA gondola. Based on data taken during the ANITA-1 and ANITA-3 flights, ANITA published two anomalousmore »instances of upcoming cosmic-rays with measured polarity opposite the remaining sample of ∼50 UHECR signals [3, 4]. The steep observed upwards incidence angles (25–30 degrees relative to the horizontal) require non-Standard Model physics if these events are due to in-ice neutrino interactions, as the Standard Model cross-section would otherwise prohibit neutrinos from penetrating the long required chord of Earth. Shoemaker et al. [5] posit that glaciological effects may explain the steep observed anomalous events. We herein consider the scenarios offered by Shoemaker et al. and find them to be disfavored by extant ANITA and HiCal experimental data. We note that the recent report of four additional near-horizon anomalous ANITA-4 events [6], at >3σ significance, are incompatible with their model, which requires significant signal transmission into the ice.« less
  4. Abstract The Surface Enhancement of the IceTop air-shower array will include the addition of radio antennas and scintillator panels, co-located with the existing ice-Cherenkov tanks and covering an area of about 1 km 2 . Together, these will increase the sensitivity of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory to the electromagnetic and muonic components of cosmic-ray-induced air showers at the South Pole. The inclusion of the radio technique necessitates an expanded set of simulation and analysis tools to explore the radio-frequency emission from air showers in the 70 MHz to 350 MHz band. In this paper we describe the software modules thatmore »have been developed to work with time- and frequency-domain information within IceCube's existing software framework, IceTray, which is used by the entire IceCube collaboration. The software includes a method by which air-shower simulation, generated using CoREAS, can be reused via waveform interpolation, thus overcoming a significant computational hurdle in the field.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  6. Abstract We present a measurement of the high-energy astrophysical muon–neutrino flux with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The measurement uses a high-purity selection of 650k neutrino-induced muon tracks from the northern celestial hemisphere, corresponding to 9.5 yr of experimental data. With respect to previous publications, the measurement is improved by the increased size of the event sample and the extended model testing beyond simple power-law hypotheses. An updated treatment of systematic uncertainties and atmospheric background fluxes has been implemented based on recent models. The best-fit single power-law parameterization for the astrophysical energy spectrum results in a normalization of ϕ @ 100more »TeV ν μ + ν ¯ μ = 1.44 − 0.26 + 0.25 × 10 − 18 GeV − 1 cm − 2 s − 1 sr − 1 and a spectral index γ SPL = 2.37 − 0.09 + 0.09 , constrained in the energy range from 15 TeV to 5 PeV. The model tests include a single power law with a spectral cutoff at high energies, a log-parabola model, several source-class-specific flux predictions from the literature, and a model-independent spectral unfolding. The data are consistent with a single power-law hypothesis, however, spectra with softening above one PeV are statistically more favorable at a two-sigma level.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  8. Abstract Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) have infrared luminosities L IR ≥ 10 12 L ⊙ , making them the most luminous objects in the infrared sky. These dusty objects are generally powered by starbursts with star formation rates that exceed 100 M ⊙ yr −1 , possibly combined with a contribution from an active galactic nucleus. Such environments make ULIRGs plausible sources of astrophysical high-energy neutrinos, which can be observed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. We present a stacking search for high-energy neutrinos from a representative sample of 75 ULIRGs with redshift z ≤ 0.13 usingmore »7.5 yr of IceCube data. The results are consistent with a background-only observation, yielding upper limits on the neutrino flux from these 75 ULIRGs. For an unbroken E −2.5 power-law spectrum, we report an upper limit on the stacked flux Φ ν μ + ν ¯ μ 90 % = 3.24 × 10 − 14 TeV − 1 cm − 2 s − 1 ( E / 10 TeV ) − 2.5 at 90% confidence level. In addition, we constrain the contribution of the ULIRG source population to the observed diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux as well as model predictions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023