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  1. Abstract We derive efficient, closed-form, differentiable, and numerically stable solutions for the flux measured from a spherical planet or moon seen in reflected light, either in or out of occultation. Our expressions apply to the computation of scattered light phase curves of exoplanets, secondary eclipse light) curves in the optical, or future measurements of planet–moon and planet–planet occultations, as well as to photometry of solar system bodies. We derive our solutions for Lambertian bodies illuminated by a point source, but extend them to model illumination sources of finite angular size and rough surfaces with phase-dependent scattering. Our algorithm is implemented in Python within the open-source starry mapping framework and is designed with efficient gradient-based inference in mind. The algorithm is ∼4–5 orders of magnitude faster than direct numerical evaluation methods and ∼10 orders of magnitude more precise. We show how the techniques developed here may one day lead to the construction of two-dimensional maps of terrestrial planet surfaces, potentially enabling the detection of continents and oceans on exoplanets in the habitable zone. 6 6
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 6, 2023
  2. Abstract

    We present the third and final data release of the K2 Galactic Archaeology Program (K2 GAP) for Campaigns C1–C8 and C10–C18. We provide asteroseismic radius and mass coefficients,κRandκM, for ∼19,000 red giant stars, which translate directly to radius and mass given a temperature. As such, K2 GAP DR3 represents the largest asteroseismic sample in the literature to date. K2 GAP DR3 stellar parameters are calibrated to be on an absolute parallactic scale based on Gaia DR2, with red giant branch and red clump evolutionary state classifications provided via a machine-learning approach. Combining these stellar parameters with GALAH DR3 spectroscopy, we determine asteroseismic ages with precisions of ∼20%–30% and compare age-abundance relations to Galactic chemical evolution models among both low- and high-αpopulations forα, light, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements. We confirm recent indications in the literature of both increased Ba production at late Galactic times as well as significant contributions tor-process enrichment from prompt sources associated with, e.g., core-collapse supernovae. With an eye toward other Galactic archeology applications, we characterize K2 GAP DR3 uncertainties and completeness using injection tests, suggesting that K2 GAP DR3 is largely unbiased in mass/age, with uncertainties of 2.9% (stat.) ± 0.1% (syst.) and 6.7% (stat.) ±more »0.3% (syst.) inκRandκMfor red giant branch stars and 4.7% (stat.) ± 0.3% (syst.) and 11% (stat.) ± 0.9% (syst.) for red clump stars. We also identify percent-level asteroseismic systematics, which are likely related to the time baseline of the underlying data, and which therefore should be considered in TESS asteroseismic analysis.

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