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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 13, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 29, 2023
  3. The electrochemical doping/dedoping kinetics, and the organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) performance of a series of polythiophene homopolymers with ethylene glycol units in their side chains using both kosmotropic and chaotropic anion solutions were studied. We compare their performance to a reference polymer, the polythiophene derivative with diethylene glycol side chains, poly(3-{[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]methyl}thiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3MEEMT). We find larger OECT material figure of merit, μC *, where μ is the carrier mobility and C * is the volumetric capacitance, and faster doping kinetics with more oxygen atoms on the side chains, and if the oxygen atom is farther from the polythiophene backbone. Replacing the oxygen atom close to the polythiophene backbone with an alkyl unit increases the film π-stacking crystallinity (higher electronic conductivity in the undoped film) but sacrifices the available doping sites (lower volumetric capacitance C * in OECT). We show that this variation in C * is the dominant factor in changing the μC * product for this family of polymers. With more oxygen atoms on the side chain, or with the oxygen atom farther from the polymer backbone, we observe both more passive swelling and higher C *. In addition, we show that, compared to the doping speed, the dedoping speed,more »as measured via spectroelectrochemistry, is both generally faster and less dependent on ion species or side chain oxygen content. Last, through OECT, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and spectroelectrochemistry measurements, we show that the chaotropic anion PF 6 − facilitates higher doping levels, faster doping kinetics, and lower doping thresholds compared to the kosmotropic anion Cl − , although the exact differences depend on the polymer side chains. Our results highlight the importance of balancing μ and C * when designing molecular structures for OECT active layers.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 17, 2023
  4. Bioelectronics focuses on the establishment of the connection between the ion-driven biosystems and readable electronic signals. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) offer a viable solution for this task. Organic mixed ionic/electronic conductors (OMIECs) rest at the heart of OECTs. The balance between the ionic and electronic conductivities of OMIECs is closely connected to the OECT device performance. While modification of the OMIECs’ electronic properties is largely related to the development of conjugated scaffolds, properties such as ion permeability, solubility, flexibility, morphology, and sensitivity can be altered by side chain moieties. In this review, we uncover the influence of side chain molecular design on the properties and performance of OECTs. We summarise current understanding of OECT performance and focus specifically on the knowledge of ionic–electronic coupling, shedding light on the significance of side chain development of OMIECs. We show how the versatile synthetic toolbox of side chains can be successfully employed to tune OECT parameters via controlling the material properties. As the field continues to mature, more detailed investigations into the crucial role side chain engineering plays on the resultant OMIEC properties will allow for side chain alternatives to be developed and will ultimately lead to further enhancements within the field ofmore »OECT channel materials.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 17, 2023
  5. Organic electronics is a rising field, with novel applications including but not limited to stretchable solar cells, flexible display screens, and biosensors. The high performance of these organic electronics is enabled by the outstanding optoelectronic and thermomechanical features of organic semiconducting materials. However, the production of the promising organic semiconducting materials at industrial scales has not yet become feasible, due to huge energy and capital costs in the large-scale synthesis as well as the potential damage to the environment and human health caused by vast hazardous chemical waste released. This review summarizes recent research advances in improving the environmental friendliness of the organic semiconducting material synthesis by appying atom economical C–H functionalization-based synthetic routes, minimizing hazardous chemical waste, lowering the energy consumption, and employing safe and abundant chemicals including naturally sourced semiconducting building blocks. This review showcases the remarkable progress that has been made towards the environmentally friendly organic semiconductor synthesis and provides insight for researchers developing green synthetic strategies and organic semiconductor building blocks in the future.
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