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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  2. Climate change, drought, and chronic overdraft represent growing threats to the sustainability of water supplies in dry environments. The Monterey/Salinas region in California exemplifies a new era of integrated or “one water” management that is using all of the water it can get to achieve more sustainable supplies to benefit cities, agriculture, and the environment. This program is the first of its kind to reuse a variety of waters including wastewater, stormwater, food industry processing water, and agricultural drainage water. This study investigates the partnerships, projects, and innovations that shape Monterey’s integrated water network in order to better understand the challenges and opportunities facing California communities as they seek to sustainably manage peri-urban water supplies. Water reuse in the Monterey region produces substantial economic and environmental benefits, from tourism and irrigation of high-value crops to protection of groundwater and increases in environmental flows and water quality. Water resource managers in other communities can learn from Monterey’s success leveraging local needs and regional partnerships to develop effective integrated water solutions. However, key challenges remain in resolving mismatched timing between water availability and demand, funding alternative water supplies, and planning effectively under uncertainty. Opportunities exist to increase Monterey’s recycled water supply bymore »up to 50%, but this requires investment in seasonal storage and depends on whether desalination or additional recycling forms the next chapter in the region’s water supply story. Regulatory guidance is needed on seasonal subsurface storage of tertiary-treated recycled water as distinct from potable recharge. By increasing the supply of recycled water to Monterey’s indirect potable use system, the region’s potential need for seawater desalination may be delayed as much as 30 years, resulting in cost and energy savings, and giving the opportunity to resolve present planning concerns.« less
  3. Abstract

    To bolster freshwater supplies, water managers are increasingly interested in recharging groundwater using storm water and recycled water. However, such multisupply groundwater recharge projects are hindered by the lack of planning tools to evaluate system design costs and trade‐offs. This study presents modeling advancements that provide enhanced insights into multisupply spreading basin systems (i.e., spreading basins that accommodate both advanced treated recycled water and dynamically available storm water), a form of managed aquifer recharge. The model identifies system designs that optimize infrastructure life cycle cost and water volumes infiltrated for groundwater recharge. To illustrate the model's application under realistic conditions, we present a case study of Los Angeles, California. In this case study, we find that competition between storm water and recycled water for spreading basin use is relatively minor. Moreover, compared to systems based on existing conservative assumptions, our methods identify optimal dynamic system designs that are 5%–20% more cost‐effective, primarily resulting from higher water recycling facility utilization. Overall, this approach, which considers the dynamic nature of storm water availability and variable recycled water production, can inform water planners of the cost, water volume, and energy trade‐offs associated with different multisupply spreading basin system designs, including varying levelsmore »of centralization.

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