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Free, publiclyaccessible full text available September 1, 2023

Clebsch variables provide a canonical representation of ideal flows that is, in practice, difficult to handle: while the velocity field is a function of the Clebsch variables and their gradients, constructing the Clebsch variables from the velocity field is not trivial. We introduce an extended set of Clebsch variables that circumvents this problem. We apply this method to a compressible, chemically inhomogeneous, and rotating ideal fluid in a gravity field. A second difficulty, the secular growth of canonical variables even for stationary states of stratified fluids, makes expansions of the Hamiltonian in Clebsch variables problematic. We give a canonical transformation that associates a stationary state of the canonical variables with the stationary state of the fluid; the new set of variables permits canonical approximations of the dynamics. We apply this to a compressible stratified ideal fluid with the aim to facilitate forthcoming studies of wave turbulence of internal waves.

We develop a theory of strong anisotropy of the energy spectra in the thermally driven turbulent counterflow of superfluid 4 He. The key ingredients of the theory are the threedimensional differential closure for the vector of the energy flux and the anisotropy of the mutual friction force. We suggest an approximate analytic solution of the resulting energyrate equation, which is fully supported by our numerical solution. The twodimensional energy spectrum is strongly confined in the direction of the counterflow velocity. In agreement with the experiments, the energy spectra in the direction orthogonal to the counterflow exhibit two scaling ranges: a nearclassical nonuniversal cascade dominated range and a universal critical regime at large wavenumbers. The theory predicts the dependence of various details of the spectra and the transition to the universal critical regime on the flow parameters. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Scaling the turbulence edifice (part 2)’.

Abstract We provide a firstprinciples analysis of the energy fluxes in the oceanic internal wave field. The resulting formula is remarkably similar to the renowned phenomenological formula for the turbulent dissipation rate in the ocean, which is known as the finescale parameterization. The prediction is based on the wave turbulence theory of internal gravity waves and on a new methodology devised for the computation of the associated energy fluxes. In the standard spectral representation of the wave energy density, in the twodimensional vertical wavenumber–frequency (
m –ω ) domain, the energy fluxes associated with the steady state are found to be directed downscale in both coordinates, closely matching the finescale parameterization formula in functional form and in magnitude. These energy transfers are composed of a “local” and a “scaleseparated” contributions; while the former is quantified numerically, the latter is dominated by the induced diffusion process and is amenable to analytical treatment. Contrary to previous results indicating an inverse energy cascade from high frequency to low, at odds with observations, our analysis of all nonzero coefficients of the diffusion tensor predicts a direct energy cascade. Moreover, by the same analysis fundamental spectra that had been deemed “noflux” solutions are reinstated to the status ofmore »Significance Statement The global circulation models cannot resolve the scales of the oceanic internal waves. The finescale parameterization of turbulent dissipation, a formula grounded in observations, is the standard tool by which the energy transfers due to internal waves are incorporated in the global models. Here, we provide an interpretation of this parameterization formula building on the firstprinciples statistical theory describing energy transfers between waves at different scales. Our result is in agreement with the finescale parameterization and points out a large contribution to the energy fluxes due to a type of wave interactions (local) usually disregarded. Moreover, the theory on which the traditional understanding of the parameterization is mainly built, a “diffusion approximation,” is known to be partly in contradiction with observations. We put forward a solution to this problem, visualized by means of “streamlines” that improve the intuition of the direction of the energy cascade.

We consider interactions between surface and interfacial waves in a twolayer system. Our approach is based on the Hamiltonian structure of the equations of motion, and includes the general procedure for diagonalization of the quadratic part of the Hamiltonian. Such diagonalization allows us to derive the interaction crosssection between surface and interfacial waves and to derive the coupled kinetic equations describing spectral energy transfers in this system. Our kinetic equation allows resonant and nearresonant interactions. We find that the energy transfers are dominated by the class III resonances of Alam ( J. Fluid Mech. , vol. 691, 2012, pp. 267–278). We apply our formalism to calculate the rate of growth for interfacial waves for different values of wind velocity. Using our kinetic equation, we also consider the energy transfer from windgenerated surface waves to interfacial waves for the case when the spectrum of the surface waves is given by the JONSWAP spectrum and interfacial waves are initially absent. We find that such energy transfer can occur along a time scale of hours; there is a range of wind speeds for the most effective energy transfer at approximately the wind speed corresponding to white capping of the sea. Furthermore, interfacial waves oblique tomore »