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  1. Interchange instability is known to drive fast radial transport of particles in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. Magnetic flux tubes associated with the interchange instability often coincide with changes in particle distributions and plasma waves, but further investigations are required to understand their detailed characteristics. We analyze representative interchange events observed by Juno, which exhibit intriguing features of particle distributions and plasma waves, including Z‐mode and whistler‐mode waves. These events occurred at an equatorial radial distance of ∼9 Jovian radii on the nightside, with Z‐mode waves observed at mid‐latitude and whistler‐mode waves near the equator. We calculate the linear growth rate of whistler‐mode and Z‐mode waves based on the observed plasma parameters and electron distributions and find that both waves can be locally generated within the interchanged flux tube. Our findings are important for understanding particle transport and generation of plasma waves in the magnetospheres of Jupiter and other planetary systems. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 16, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Element isotopes are characterized by distinct atomic masses and nuclear spins, which can significantly influence material properties. Notably, however, isotopes in natural materials are homogenously distributed in space. Here, we propose a method to configure material properties by repositioning isotopes in engineered van der Waals (vdW) isotopic heterostructures. We showcase the properties of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) isotopic heterostructures in engineering confined photon-lattice waves—hyperbolic phonon polaritons. By varying the composition, stacking order, and thicknesses of h10BN and h11BN building blocks, hyperbolic phonon polaritons can be engineered into a variety of energy-momentum dispersions. These confined and tailored polaritons are promising for various nanophotonic and thermal functionalities. Due to the universality and importance of isotopes, our vdW isotope heterostructuring method can be applied to engineer the properties of a broad range of materials.

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  3. Abstract

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the Earth's outer radiation belt drive rapid electron losses through wave‐particle interactions. The precipitating electron flux can be high in the hundreds of keV energy range, well below the typical minimum resonance energy. One of the proposed explanations relies on nonresonant scattering, which causes pitch‐angle diffusion away from the fundamental cyclotron resonance. Here we propose the fractional sub‐cyclotron resonance, a second‐order nonlinear effect that scatters particles at resonance ordern = 1/2, as an alternate explanation. Using test‐particle simulations, we evaluate the precipitation ratios of sub‐MeV electrons for wave packets with various shapes, amplitudes, and wave normal angles. We show that the nonlinear sub‐cyclotron scattering produces larger ratios than the nonresonant scattering when the wave amplitude reaches sufficiently large values. The ELFIN CubeSats detected several events with precipitation ratio patterns matching our simulation, demonstrating the importance of sub‐cyclotron resonances during intense precipitation events.

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  4. Abstract

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can drive radiation belt depletion and Low‐Earth Orbit satellites can detect the resulting electron and proton precipitation. The ELFIN (Electron Losses and Fields InvestigatioN) CubeSats provide an excellent opportunity to study the properties of EMIC‐driven electron precipitation with much higher energy and pitch‐angle resolution than previously allowed. We collect EMIC‐driven electron precipitation events from ELFIN observations and use POES (Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites) to search for 10s–100s keV proton precipitation nearby as a proxy of EMIC wave activity. Electron precipitation mainly occurs on localized radial scales (∼0.3 L), over 15–24 MLT and 5–8 L shells, stronger at ∼MeV energies and weaker down to ∼100–200 keV. Additionally, the observed loss cone pitch‐angle distribution agrees with quasilinear predictions at ≳250 keV (more filled loss cone with increasing energy), while additional mechanisms are needed to explain the observed low‐energy precipitation.

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  5. Abstract

    In this study, using Van Allen Probes observations we identify 81 events of electron flux bursts with butterfly pitch angle distributions for tens of keV electrons with close correlations with chorus wave bursts in the Earth's magnetosphere. We use the high‐rate electron flux data from Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer available during 2013–2019 and the simultaneous whistler‐mode wave measurements from Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science to identify the correlated events. The events are categorized into 67 upper‐band chorus (0.5–0.8fce) dominated events and 14 other events where lower‐band chorus (0.05–0.5fce) has modest or strong amplitudes (fcerepresents electron cyclotron frequency). Each electron flux burst correlated with chorus has a short timescale of ∼1 min or less, suggesting potential nonlinear effects. The statistical distribution of selected electron burst events tends to occur in the post‐midnight sector atL > 5 under disturbed geomagnetic conditions, and is associated with chorus waves with relatively strong magnetic wave amplitude and small wave normal angle. The frequency dependence of the electron flux peaks agrees with the cyclotron resonant condition, indicating the effects of chorus‐induced electron acceleration. Our study provides new insights into understanding the rapid nonlinear interactions between chorus and energetic electrons.

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  6. Abstract

    We review comprehensive observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave-driven energetic electron precipitation using data collected by the energetic electron detector on the Electron Losses and Fields InvestigatioN (ELFIN) mission, two polar-orbiting low-altitude spinning CubeSats, measuring 50-5000 keV electrons with good pitch-angle and energy resolution. EMIC wave-driven precipitation exhibits a distinct signature in energy-spectrograms of the precipitating-to-trapped flux ratio: peaks at >0.5 MeV which are abrupt (bursty) (lasting ∼17 s, or$\Delta L\sim 0.56$ΔL0.56) with significant substructure (occasionally down to sub-second timescale). We attribute the bursty nature of the precipitation to the spatial extent and structuredness of the wave field at the equator. Multiple ELFIN passes over the same MLT sector allow us to study the spatial and temporal evolution of the EMIC wave - electron interaction region. Case studies employing conjugate ground-based or equatorial observations of the EMIC waves reveal that the energy of moderate and strong precipitation at ELFIN approximately agrees with theoretical expectations for cyclotron resonant interactions in a cold plasma. Using multiple years of ELFIN data uniformly distributed in local time, we assemble a statistical database of ∼50 events of strong EMIC wave-driven precipitation. Most reside at$L\sim 5-7$L57at dusk, while a smaller subset exists at$L\sim 8-12$L812at post-midnight. The energies of the peak-precipitation ratio and of the half-peak precipitation ratio (our proxy for the minimum resonance energy) exhibit an$L$L-shell dependence in good agreement with theoretical estimates based on prior statistical observations of EMIC wave power spectra. The precipitation ratio’s spectral shape for the most intense events has an exponential falloff away from the peak (i.e., on either side of$\sim 1.45$1.45MeV). It too agrees well with quasi-linear diffusion theory based on prior statistics of wave spectra. It should be noted though that this diffusive treatment likely includes effects from nonlinear resonant interactions (especially at high energies) and nonresonant effects from sharp wave packet edges (at low energies). Sub-MeV electron precipitation observed concurrently with strong EMIC wave-driven >1 MeV precipitation has a spectral shape that is consistent with efficient pitch-angle scattering down to ∼ 200-300 keV by much less intense higher frequency EMIC waves at dusk (where such waves are most frequent). At ∼100 keV, whistler-mode chorus may be implicated in concurrent precipitation. These results confirm the critical role of EMIC waves in driving relativistic electron losses. Nonlinear effects may abound and require further investigation.

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