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  1. Abstract

    We present average magnetic field measurements derived from high-resolution near-infrared IGRINS spectra of a carefully selected sample of 28 M dwarfs. All 28 have reported magnetic field strengths in the literature. The main goal of this work is to investigate the accuracy, precision, and limitations of magnetic field measurements from IGRINS spectra. This investigation is critical to validating the robustness of our methods before we apply them to over 500 IGRINS-observed M dwarfs in the next paper of the series. We used the Zeeman broadening and Zeeman intensification methods to measure average magnetic fields. Our measurements are all consistent with the previous measurements to within ±1 kG, with an average offset of −0.17 kG for the broadening method and +0.19 kG for the intensification method. We find that the detection limit of IGRINS is ∼0.9 kG with the Zeeman broadening method, in accordance with the instrumental broadening limit of the spectrograph. With the Zeeman intensification method, we are able to detect down to ∼0.7 kG with a signal-to-noise ratio of 150 or greater. We find an advantage of using the intensification method over the broadening method, which is the ability to reliably measure the magnetic field strengths of stars that are cooler than 3100 K where the spectrum becomes dominated by molecular lines. Therefore, the intensification method is crucial to study stellar magnetism of late-M and brown dwarfs.

     
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  2. Abstract Determining accurate effective temperatures of stars buried in the dust-obscured Galactic regions is extremely difficult from photometry. Fortunately, high-resolution infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining the temperatures of stars with no dependence on interstellar extinction. It has long been known that the depth ratios of temperature-sensitive and relatively insensitive spectral lines are excellent temperature indices. In this work, we provide the first extensive line depth ratio (LDR) method application in the infrared region that encompasses both the H and K bands (1.48 μ m − 2.48 μ m). We applied the LDR method to high-resolution ( R ≃ 45,000) H- and K -band spectra of 110 stars obtained with the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph. Our sample contained stars with 3200 < T eff (K) < 5500, 0.20 ≤ log g < 4.6, and −1.5 < [M/H] < 0.5. The application of this method in the K band yielded 21 new LDR– T eff relations. We also report five new LDR– T eff relations found in the H -band region, augmenting the relations already published by other groups. The temperatures found from our calibrations provide reliable temperatures within ∼70 K accuracy compared to spectral  T eff values from the literature. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. ABSTRACT

    Westerlund 1 (Wd 1) is one of the most relevant star clusters in the Milky Way to study massive star formation, although it is still poorly known. Here, we used photometric and spectroscopic data to model the eclipsing binary W36, showing that its spectral type is O6.5 III  +  O9.5 IV, hotter and more luminous than thought before. Its distance dW36 = 4.03 ± 0.25 kpc agrees, within the errors, with three recent Gaia-EDR3-based distances reported in Paper I, Beasor & Davies, and by Negueruela’s group. However, they follow different approaches to fix the zero-points for red sources such as those in Wd 1, and to select the best approach, we used an accurate modelling of W36. The weighted mean distance of our parallax (Paper I) and binary distances results in dwd1 = 4.05 ± 0.20 kpc, with an unprecedented accuracy of 5 per cent. We adopted isochrones based on the Geneva code with supersolar abundances to infer the age of W36B as 6.4 ± 0.7 Myr. This object seems to be part of the prolific star formation burst represented by OB giants and supergiants that occurred at 7.1 ± 0.5 Myr ago, which coincides with the recently published PMS isochrone with age 7.2 Myr. Other BA-type luminous evolved stars and yellow hypergiants spread in the age range of 8–11 Myr. The four red supergiants discussed in paper I represent the oldest population of the cluster with an age of 10.7 ± 1 Myr. The multiple episodes of star formation in Wd 1 are reminiscent of that reported for the R136/30 Dor LMC cluster.

     
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  4. Abstract

    We used the Immersion GRating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) to determine fundamental parameters for 61 K- and M-type young stellar objects (YSOs) located in the Ophiuchus and Upper Scorpius star-forming regions. We employed synthetic spectra and a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to fit specificK-band spectral regions and determine the photospheric temperature (T), surface gravity (logg), magnetic field strength (B), projected rotational velocity (vsini), andK-band veiling (rK). We determinedBfor ∼46% of our sample. Stellar parameters were compared to the results from Taurus-Auriga and the TW Hydrae association presented in Paper I of this series. We classified all the YSOs in the IGRINS survey with infrared spectral indices from Two Micron All Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry between 2 and 24μm. We found that Class II YSOs typically have lowerloggandvsini, similarB, and higherK-band veiling than their Class III counterparts. Additionally, we determined the stellar parameters for a sample of K and M field stars also observed with IGRINS. We have identified intrinsic similarities and differences at different evolutionary stages with our homogeneous determination of stellar parameters in the IGRINS YSO survey. Consideringloggas a proxy for age, we found that the Ophiuchus and Taurus samples have a similar age. We also find that Upper Scorpius and TWA YSOs have similar ages, and are more evolved than Ophiuchus/Taurus YSOs.

     
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  5. ABSTRACT

    We present Gemini South/IGRINS observations of the 1060 K T6 dwarf 2MASS J08173001−6155158 with unprecedented resolution ($R\equiv \lambda /\Delta \lambda =45\, 000$) and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 200) for a late-type T dwarf. We use this benchmark observation to test the reliability of molecular line lists used up-to-date atmospheric models. We determine which spectroscopic regions should be used to estimate the parameters of cold brown dwarfs and, by extension, exoplanets. We present a detailed spectroscopic atlas with molecular identifications across the H and K bands of the near-infrared. We find that water (H2O) line lists are overall reliable. We find the most discrepancies amongst older methane (CH4) line lists, and that the most up-to-date CH4 line lists correct many of these issues. We identify individual ammonia (NH3) lines, a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) feature at 1.5900 $\mu$m, and a molecular hydrogen (H2) feature at 2.1218 $\mu$m. These are the first unambiguous detections of H2S and H2 absorption features in an extra-solar atmosphere. With the H2 detection, we place an upper limit on the atmospheric dust concentration of this T6 dwarf: at least 500 times less than the interstellar value, implying that the atmosphere is effectively dust-free. We additionally identify several features that do not appear in the model spectra. Our assessment of the line lists is valuable for atmospheric model applications to high-dispersion, low-S/N, high-background spectra, such as an exoplanet around a star. We demonstrate a significant enhancement in the detection of the CH4 absorption signal in this T6 dwarf with the most up-to-date line lists.

     
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  6. Abstract

    We have gathered near-infraredzyJ-band high-resolution spectra of nearly 300 field red giant stars with known lithium abundances in order to survey their Heiλ10830 absorption strengths. This transition is an indicator of chromospheric activity and/or mass loss in red giants. The majority of stars in our sample reside in the red clump or red horizontal branch based on theirVJ,MVcolor–magnitude diagram, and GaiaTeffand log(g) values. Most of our target stars are Li-poor in the sense of having normally low Li abundances, defined here as logϵ(Li) < 1.25. Over 90% of these Li-poor stars have weakλ10830 features. However, more than half of the 83 Li-rich stars (logϵ(Li) > 1.25) have strongλ10830 absorptions. These largeλ10830 lines signal excess chromospheric activity in Li-rich stars; there is almost no indication of significant mass loss. The Li-rich giants may also have a higher binary fraction than Li-poor stars, based on their astrometric data. It appears likely that both residence on the horizontal branch and present or past binary interaction play roles in the significant Li–He connection established in this survey.

     
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  7. null (Ed.)