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  1. Abstract

    It is intriguing how a mixture of organic molecules survived the prebiotic UV fluxes and evolved into the actual genetic building blocks. Scientists are trying to shed light on this issue by synthesizing nucleic acid monomers and their analogues under prebiotic Era‐like conditions and by exploring their excited state dynamics. To further add to this important body of knowledge, this study discloses new insights into the photophysical properties of protonated isoguanine, an isomorph of guanine, using steady‐state and femtosecond broadband transient absorption spectroscopies, and quantum mechanical calculations. Protonated isoguanine decays in ultrafast time scales following 292 nm excitation, consistently with the barrierless paths connecting the bright S1(ππ*) state with different internal conversion funnels. Complementary calculations for neutral isoguanine predict similar photophysical properties. These results demonstrate that protonated isoguanine can be considered photostable in contrast to protonated guanine, which exhibits 40‐fold longer excited state lifetimes.

     
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  2. Abstract

    A multi-TeV muon collider offers a spectacular opportunity in the direct exploration of the energy frontier. Offering a combination of unprecedented energy collisions in a comparatively clean leptonic environment, a high energy muon collider has the unique potential to provide both precision measurements and the highest energy reach in one machine that cannot be paralleled by any currently available technology. The topic generated a lot of excitement in Snowmass meetings and continues to attract a large number of supporters, including many from the early career community. In light of this very strong interest within the US particle physics community, Snowmass Energy, Theory and Accelerator Frontiers created a cross-frontier Muon Collider Forum in November of 2020. The Forum has been meeting on a monthly basis and organized several topical workshops dedicated to physics, accelerator technology, and detector R&D. Findings of the Forum are summarized in this report.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  3. Abstract

    Tok‐tokkies are one of the most iconic lineages within Tenebrionidae. In addition to containing some of the largest darkling beetles, this tribe is recognized for its remarkable form of sexual communication known as substrate tapping. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic relationships within the group remain poorly understood. This study investigates the usefulness of female terminalia morphology for delimiting Sepidiini and reconstructing relationships among it. Data on the structure of the ovipositors, genital tubes and spicula ventrali have been generated for >200 species representing 28 Pimeliinae tribes. This dataset was used in a comparative analysis at the subfamilial level, which resulted in recognition of several unique features of tok‐tokkie terminalia. Additionally, new features linking phenotypically challenging tribes also were recovered (Cryptochilini + Idisiini + Pimeliini). Secondly, 23 characters linked to the structure of female terminalia were defined for tok‐tok beetles. Cladistic analysis demonstrates the nonmonophyletic nature of most of the recognized subtribes. The morphological dataset was analysed separately and in combination with available molecular data (CAD, Wg, cox1, cox2, 28S). All obtained topologies were largely congruent, supporting the following changes: Palpomodina Kamiński & Gearnersubtr.n.is erected to accommodate the generaNamibomodesandPalpomodes;ArgenticrinisandBombocnodulusare transferred from Hypomelina to Molurina; 153 species and subspecies previously classified withinPsammodesare distributed over three separate genera (MariazofiaKamińskinom.n.,Piesomerastat.r.,Psammodessens.n.).Psammodes sklodowskaeKamiński & Gearnersp.n.is described. Preliminary investigation of the ovipositor ofMariazofiabasuto(Koch)comb.n.was carried out with the application of microcomputed tomography, illuminating the muscular system as a reliable reference point for recognizing homologous elements in highly modified ovipositors.

     
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  4. Abstract

    The chemical reduction of π‐conjugated bilayer nanographene1(C138H120) with K and Rb in the presence of 18‐crown‐6 affords [K+(18‐crown‐6)(THF)2][{K+(18‐crown‐6)}2(THF)0.5][C138H1223−] (2) and [Rb+(18‐crown‐6)2][{Rb+(18‐crown‐6)}2(C138H1223−)] (3). Whereas K+cations are fully solvent‐separated from the trianionic core thus affording a “naked”1.3anion, Rb+cations are coordinated to the negatively charged layers of1.3. According to DFT calculations, the localization of the first two electrons in the helicene moiety leads to an unprecedented site‐specific hydrogenation process at the carbon atoms located on the edge of the helicene backbone. This uncommon reduction‐induced site‐specific hydrogenation provokes dramatic changes in the (electronic) structure of1as the helicene backbone becomes more compressed and twisted upon chemical reduction, which results in a clear slippage of the bilayers.

     
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  5. Abstract

    The chemical reduction of π‐conjugated bilayer nanographene1(C138H120) with K and Rb in the presence of 18‐crown‐6 affords [K+(18‐crown‐6)(THF)2][{K+(18‐crown‐6)}2(THF)0.5][C138H1223−] (2) and [Rb+(18‐crown‐6)2][{Rb+(18‐crown‐6)}2(C138H1223−)] (3). Whereas K+cations are fully solvent‐separated from the trianionic core thus affording a “naked”1.3anion, Rb+cations are coordinated to the negatively charged layers of1.3. According to DFT calculations, the localization of the first two electrons in the helicene moiety leads to an unprecedented site‐specific hydrogenation process at the carbon atoms located on the edge of the helicene backbone. This uncommon reduction‐induced site‐specific hydrogenation provokes dramatic changes in the (electronic) structure of1as the helicene backbone becomes more compressed and twisted upon chemical reduction, which results in a clear slippage of the bilayers.

     
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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  8. Abstract

    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024