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In this paper, we propose a rerouting strategy for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs), considering coordination and control of all the CAVs in the network. The objective for each CAV is to find the route that minimizes the total travel time of all CAVs. We coordinate CAVs at signalfree intersections to accurately predict the travel time for the routing problem. While it is possible to find a systemoptimal solution by comparing all the possible combinations of the routes, this may impose a computational burden. Thus, we instead find a personbyperson optimal solution to reduce computational time while still deriving a better solution than selfish routing. We validate our framework through simulations in a grid network.more » « less

In this article, we present a constraintdriven optimal control framework that achieves emergent cluster flocking within a constrained 2D environment. We formulate a decentralized optimal control problem that includes safety, flocking, and predator avoidance constraints. We explicitly derive conditions for constraint compatibility and propose an eventdriven constraint relaxation scheme. We map this to an equivalent switching system that intuitively describes the behavior of each agent in the system. Instead of minimizing control effort, as it is common in the ecologicallyinspired robotics literature, in our approach, we minimize each agent’s deviation from their most efficient locomotion speed. Finally, we demonstrate our approach in simulation both with and without the presence of a predator.more » « less

In this paper, we consider a multimodal mobility system of travelers each with an individual travel budget, and propose a gametheoretic framework to assign each traveler to a “mobility service” (each one representing a different mode of transportation). We are interested in equity and sustainability, thus we maximize the worstcase revenue of the mobility system while ensuring “mobility equity,” which we define it in terms of accessibility. In the proposed framework, we ensure that all travelers are truthful and voluntarily participate under informational asymmetry, and the solution respects the individual budget of each traveler. Each traveler may seek to travel using multiple services (e.g., car, bus, train, bike). The services are capacitated and can serve up to a fixed number of travelers at any instant of time. Thus, our problem falls under the category of manytoone assignment problems, where the goal is to find the conditions that guarantee the stability of assignments. We formulate a linear program of maximizing worstcase revenue under the constraints of mobility equity, and we fully characterize the optimal solution.more » « less

Platoon formation with connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) in a mixed traffic environment poses significant challenges due to the presence of humandriven vehicles (HDVs) with unknown dynamics and control actions. In this paper, we develop a safetyprioritized receding horizon control framework for creating platoons of HDVs preceded by a CAV Our framework ensures indirect control of the following HDVs by directly controlling the leading CAV given the safety constraints. The framework utilizes a datadriven prediction model that is based on the recursive least squares algorithm and the constant time headway relative velocity carfollowing model to predict future trajectories of humandriven vehicles. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed framework, we conduct numerical simulations and provide the associated scalability, robustness, and performance analyses.more » « less

In this paper, we develop an optimal weight adap tation strategy of model predictive control (MPC) for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) in mixed traffic. We model the interaction between a CAV and a humandriven vehicle (HDV) as a simultaneous game and formulate a gametheoretic MPC problem to find a Nash equilibrium of the game. In the MPC problem, the weights in the HDV’s objective function can be learned online using moving horizon inverse reinforcement learning. Using Bayesian optimization, we propose a strategy to optimally adapt the weights in the CAV’s objective function so that the expected true cost when using MPC in simulations can be minimized. We validate the effectiveness of the optimal strategy by numerical simulations of a vehicle crossing example at an unsignalized intersection.more » « less

In this paper, we consider the problem of optimizing the worstcase behavior of a partially observed system. All uncontrolled disturbances are modeled as finitevalued uncertain variables. Using the theory of cost distributions, we present a dynamic programming (DP) approach to compute a control strategy that minimizes the maximum possible total cost over a given time horizon. To improve the computational efficiency of the optimal DP, we introduce a general definition for information states and show that many information states constructed in previous research efforts are special cases of ours. Additionally, we define approximate information states and an approximate DP that can further improve computational tractability by conceding a bounded performance loss. We illustrate the utility of these results using a numerical example.more » « less

In this paper, we study a routing and travelmode choice problem for mobility systems with a multimodal transportation network as a “mobility game” with coupled action sets. We formulate an atomic routing game to focus on the travelers’ preferences and study the impact on the efficiency of the travelers’ behavioral decisionmaking under rationality and prospect theory. To control the innate inefficiencies, we introduce a mobility “pricing mechanism,” in which we model traffic congestion using linear cost functions while also considering the waiting times at different transport hubs. We show that the travelers’ selfish actions lead to a purestrategy Nash equilibrium. We then perform a Price of Anarchy and Price of Stability analysis to establish that the mobility system’s inefficiencies remain relatively low and the social welfare at a NE remains close to the social optimum as the number of travelers increases. We deviate from the standard gametheoretic analysis of decisionmaking by extending our mobility game to capture the subjective behavior of travelers using prospect theory. Finally, we provide a detailed discussion of implementing our proposed mobility game.more » « less

Most cyber–physical systems (CPS) encounter a large volume of data which is added to the system gradually in real time and not altogether in advance. In this paper, we provide a theoretical framework that yields optimal control strategies for such CPS at the intersection of control theory and learning. In the proposed framework, we use the actual CPS, i.e., the ‘‘true" system that we seek to optimally control online, in parallel with a model of the CPS that is available. We then institute an information state for the system which does not depend on the control strategy. An important consequence of this independence is that for any given choice of a control strategy and a realization of the system’s variables until time t, the information states at future times do not depend on the choice of the control strategy at time t but only on the realization of the decision at time t, and thus they are related to the concept of separation between estimation of the state and control. Namely, the future information states are separated from the choice of the current control strategy. Such control strategies are called separated control strategies. Hence, we can derive offline the optimal control strategy of the system with respect to the information state, which might not be precisely known due to model uncertainties or complexity of the system, and then use standard learning approaches to learn the information state online while data are added gradually to the system in real time. We show that after the information state becomes known, the separated control strategy of the CPS model derived offline is optimal for the actual system. We illustrate the proposed framework in a dynamic system consisting of two subsystems with a delayed sharing information structure.more » « less