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  1. Abstract

    Observed scatter in the Lyαopacity of quasar sightlines atz< 6 has motivated measurements of the correlation between Lyαopacity and galaxy density, as models that predict this scatter make strong and sometimes opposite predictions for how they should be related. Our previous work associated two highly opaque Lyαtroughs atz∼ 5.7 with a deficit of Lyαemitting galaxies (LAEs). In this work, we survey two of the most highly transmissive lines of sight at this redshift toward thez= 6.02 quasar SDSS J1306+0356 and thez= 6.17 quasar PSO J359-06. We find that both fields are underdense in LAEs within 10h−1Mpc of the quasar sightline, somewhat less extensive than underdensities associated with Lyαtroughs. We combine our observations with three additional fields from the literature and find that while fields with extreme opacities are generally underdense, moderate opacities span a wider density range. The results at high opacities are consistent with models that invoke UV background fluctuations and/or late reionization to explain the observed scatter in intergalactic medium (IGM) Lyαopacities. There is tension at low opacities, however, as the models tend to associate lower IGM Lyαopacities with higher densities. Although the number of fields surveyed is still small, the low-opacity results may support a scenario in which the ionizing background in low-density regions increases more rapidly than some models suggest after becoming ionized. Elevated gas temperatures from recent reionization may also be making these regions more transparent.

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  2. Abstract The fourth Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog (4FGL) contains 5064 γ -ray sources detected at high significance, but 26% of them still lack associations at other wavelengths. The SPT-SZ survey, conducted between 2008 and 2011 with the South Pole Telescope (SPT), covers 2500 deg 2 of the southern sky in three millimeter-wavelength (mm) bands and was used to construct a catalog of nearly 5000 emissive sources. In this study, we introduce a new cross-matching scheme to search for multiwavelength counterparts of extragalactic γ -ray sources using a mm catalog. We apply a Poissonian probability to evaluate the rate of spurious false associations and compare the multiwavelength associations from the radio, mm, near-infrared, and X-ray with 4FGL γ -ray sources. In the SPT-SZ survey field, 85% of 4FGL sources are associated with mm counterparts. These mm sources include 94% of previously associated 4FGL sources and 56% of previously unassociated 4FGL sources. The latter group contains 40 4FGL sources for which SPT has provided the first identified counterparts. Nearly all of the SPT-associated 4FGL sources can be described as flat-spectrum radio quasars or blazars. We find that the mm band is the most efficient wavelength for detecting γ -ray blazars when considering both completeness and purity. We also demonstrate that the mm band correlates better to the γ -ray band than the radio or X-ray bands. With the next generation of CMB experiments, this technique can be extended to greater sensitivities and more sky area to further complete the identifications of the remaining unknown γ -ray blazars. 
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  3. Abstract

    We present new JWST NIRSpec integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data for the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 7469, a nearby (70.6 Mpc) active galaxy with a Seyfert 1.5 nucleus that drives a highly ionized gas outflow and a prominent nuclear star-forming ring. Using the superb sensitivity and high spatial resolution of the JWST instrument NIRSpec IFS, we investigate the role of the Seyfert nucleus in the excitation and dynamics of the circumnuclear gas. Our analysis focuses on the [Feii], H2, and hydrogen recombination lines that trace the radiation/shocked-excited molecular and ionized interstellar medium around the active galactic nucleus (AGN). We investigate gas excitation through H2/Brγand [Feii]/Paβemission line ratios and find that photoionization by the AGN dominates within the central 300 pc of the galaxy except in a small region that shows signatures of shock-heated gas; these shock-heated regions are likely associated with a compact radio jet. In addition, the velocity field and velocity dispersion maps reveal complex gas kinematics. Rotation is the dominant feature, but we also identify noncircular motions consistent with gas inflows as traced by the velocity residuals and the spiral pattern in the Paαvelocity dispersion map. The inflow is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the AGN accretion rate. The compact nuclear radio jet has enough power to drive the highly ionized outflow. This scenario suggests that the inflow and outflow are in a self-regulating feeding–feedback process, with a contribution from the radio jet helping to drive the outflow.

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  4. Abstract

    SPT0311-58, a system of two interacting galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization, exists in one of the rarest, most massive dark matter halos theoretically possible in that era. Studying the interstellar medium (ISM) in these galaxies can illuminate the process of galaxy formation in the early Universe. In this work, we explore the multiphase ISM in this system, using ALMA observations of the [Cii] 158, [Oi] 146, [Nii] 122, and [Oiii] 88 fine-structure lines and dust continuum. We find wide variations in line ratios between the eastern and western galaxies, as well as across the western galaxy. Continuum colors indicate that SPT0311-58 E has a higher ionization parameter (logU2.8) than SPT0311-58 W (logU3.1). The ratio of [Oiii] 88–[Nii] 122 and the ionization parameter constraints combine to demonstrate near-solar metallicity in these objects just 800 Myr after the Big Bang.

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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 15, 2024
  6. Abstract We report the first spatially resolved measurements of gas-phase metallicity radial gradients in star-forming galaxies in overdense environments at z ≳ 2. The spectroscopic data are acquired by the MAMMOTH-Grism survey, a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) cycle 28 medium program. This program is obtaining 45 orbits of WFC3/IR grism spectroscopy in the density peak regions of three massive galaxy protoclusters (BOSS 1244, BOSS 1542, and BOSS 1441) at z = 2–3. Our sample in the BOSS 1244 field consists of 20 galaxies with stellar mass ranging from 10 9.0 to 10 10.3 M ⊙ , star formation rate (SFR) from 10 to 240 M ⊙ yr −1 , and global gas-phase metallicity ( 12 + log ( O / H ) ) from 8.2 to 8.6. At 1 σ confidence level, 2/20 galaxies in our sample show positive (inverted) gradients—the relative abundance of oxygen increasing with galactocentric radius, opposite the usual trend. Furthermore, 1/20 shows negative gradients, and 17/20 are consistent with flat gradients. This high fraction of flat/inverted gradients is uncommon in simulations and previous observations conducted in blank fields at similar redshifts. To understand this, we investigate the correlations among various observed properties of our sample galaxies. We find an anticorrelation between metallicity gradient and global metallicity of our galaxies residing in extreme overdensities, and a marked deficiency of metallicity in our massive galaxies as compared to their coeval field counterparts. We conclude that the cold-mode gas accretion plays an active role in shaping the chemical evolution of galaxies in the protocluster environments, diluting their central chemical abundance, and flattening/inverting their metallicity gradients. 
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  7. Abstract The observed large-scale scatter in Ly α opacity of the intergalactic medium at z < 6 implies large fluctuations in the neutral hydrogen fraction that are unexpected long after reionization has ended. A number of models have emerged to explain these fluctuations that make testable predictions for the relationship between Ly α opacity and density. We present selections of z = 5.7 Ly α -emitting galaxies (LAEs) in the fields surrounding two highly opaque quasar sightlines with long Ly α troughs. The fields lie toward the z = 6.0 quasar ULAS J0148+0600, for which we reanalyze previously published results using improved photometric selection, and toward the z = 6.15 quasar SDSS J1250+3130, for which results are presented here for the first time. In both fields, we report a deficit of LAEs within 20 h −1 Mpc of the quasar. The association of highly opaque sightlines with galaxy underdensities in these two fields is consistent with models in which the scatter in Ly α opacity is driven by large-scale fluctuations in the ionizing UV background or by an ultra-late reionization that has not yet concluded at z = 5.7. 
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  8. Abstract

    The broad-line region (BLR) size–luminosity relation has paramount importance for estimating the mass of black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Traditionally, the size of the HβBLR is often estimated from the optical continuum luminosity at 5100 Å, while the size of the HαBLR and its correlation with the luminosity is much less constrained. As a part of the Seoul National University AGN Monitoring Project, which provides 6 yr photometric and spectroscopic monitoring data, we present our measurements of the Hαlags of high-luminosity AGNs. Combined with the measurements for 42 AGNs from the literature, we derive the size–luminosity relations of the HαBLR against the broad Hαand 5100 Å continuum luminosities. We find the slope of the relations to be 0.61 ± 0.04 and 0.59 ± 0.04, respectively, which are consistent with the Hβsize–luminosity relation. Moreover, we find a linear relation between the 5100 Å continuum luminosity and the broad Hαluminosity across 7 orders of magnitude. Using these results, we propose a new virial mass estimator based on the Hαbroad emission line, finding that the previous mass estimates based on scaling relations in the literature are overestimated by up to 0.7 dex at masses lower than 107M.

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  9. Abstract We present James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) imaging of NGC 7469 with the Near-Infrared Camera and the Mid-InfraRed Instrument. NGC 7469 is a nearby, z = 0.01627, luminous infrared galaxy that hosts both a Seyfert Type-1.5 nucleus and a circumnuclear starburst ring with a radius of ∼0.5 kpc. The new near-infrared (NIR) JWST imaging reveals 66 star-forming regions, 37 of which were not detected by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. Twenty-eight of the 37 sources have very red NIR colors that indicate obscurations up to A v ∼ 7 and a contribution of at least 25% from hot dust emission to the 4.4 μ m band. Their NIR colors are also consistent with young (<5 Myr) stellar populations and more than half of them are coincident with the mid-infrared (MIR) emission peaks. These younger, dusty star-forming regions account for ∼6% and ∼17% of the total 1.5 and 4.4 μ m luminosity of the starburst ring, respectively. Thanks to JWST, we find a significant number of young dusty sources that were previously unseen due to dust extinction. The newly identified 28 young sources are a significant increase compared to the number of HST-detected young sources (4–5). This makes the total percentage of the young population rise from ∼15% to 48%. These results illustrate the effectiveness of JWST in identifying and characterizing previously hidden star formation in the densest star-forming environments around active galactic nuclei (AGN). 
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