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Multi-scale observations of mangrove blue carbon ecosystem fluxes: The NASA Carbon Monitoring System BlueFlux field campaignAbstract The BlueFlux field campaign, supported by NASA’s Carbon Monitoring System, will develop prototype blue carbon products to inform coastal carbon management. While blue carbon has been suggested as a nature-based climate solution (NBS) to remove carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmosphere, these ecosystems also release additional greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as methane (CH 4 ) and are sensitive to disturbances including hurricanes and sea-level rise. To understand blue carbon as an NBS, BlueFlux is conducting multi-scale measurements of CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes across coastal landscapes, combined with long-term carbon burial, in Southern Florida using chambers, flux towers, and aircraft combined with remote-sensing observations for regional upscaling. During the first deployment in April 2022, CO 2 uptake and CH 4 emissions across the Everglades National Park averaged −4.9 ± 4.7 μ mol CO 2 m −2 s −1 and 19.8 ± 41.1 nmol CH 4 m −2 s −1 , respectively. When scaled to the region, mangrove CH 4 emissions offset the mangrove CO 2 uptake by about 5% (assuming a 100 year CH 4 global warming potential of 28), leading to total net uptake of 31.8 Tg CO 2 -eq y −1 . Subsequent fieldmore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
Biophysical Factors Influence Methane Fluxes in Subtropical Freshwater Wetlands Using Eddy Covariance MethodsWetlands are the largest natural source of methane (CH4); however, the contribution of subtropical wetlands to global CH4 budgets is still unclear due to difficulties in accurately quantifying CH4 emissions from these complex ecosystems. Both direct (water management strategies) and indirect (altered weather patterns associated with climate change) anthropogenic influences are also leading to greater uncertainties in our ability to determine changes in CH4 emissions from these ecosystems. This study compares CH4 fluxes from two freshwater marshes with different hydroperiods (short versus long) in the Florida Everglades to examine temporal patterns and biophysical drivers of CH4 fluxes. Both sites showed similar seasonal patterns across years with higher CH4 release during wet seasons versus dry seasons. The long hydroperiod site showed stronger seasonal patterns and overall, emitted more CH4 than the short hydroperiod site; however, no distinctive diurnal patterns were observed. We found that air temperature was a significant positive driver of CH4 fluxes for both sites regardless of season. In addition, gross ecosystem exchange was a significant negative predictor of CH4 emissions in the dry season at the long hydroperiod site. CH4 fluxes were impacted by water level and its changes over site and season, and time scales, which aremore »
Gaps in network infrastructure limit our understanding of biogenic methane emissions for the United StatesAbstract. Understanding the sources and sinks of methane (CH4)is critical to both predicting and mitigating future climate change. Thereare large uncertainties in the global budget of atmospheric CH4, butnatural emissions are estimated to be of a similar magnitude toanthropogenic emissions. To understand CH4 flux from biogenic sourcesin the United States (US) of America, a multi-scale CH4 observationnetwork focused on CH4 flux rates, processes, and scaling methods isrequired. This can be achieved with a network of ground-based observationsthat are distributed based on climatic regions and land cover. To determinethe gaps in physical infrastructure for developing this network, we need tounderstand the landscape representativeness of the current infrastructure.We focus here on eddy covariance (EC) flux towers because they are essentialfor a bottom-up framework that bridges the gap between point-based chambermeasurements and airborne or satellite platforms that inform policydecisions and global climate agreements. Using dissimilarity,multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis, the US was divided into 10clusters distributed across temperature and precipitation gradients. Weevaluated dissimilarity within each cluster for research sites with activeCH4 EC towers to identify gaps in existing infrastructure that limitour ability to constrain the contribution of US biogenic CH4 emissionsto the global budget. Through our analysis using climate, land cover, andlocation variables,more »
Integrating Aquatic Metabolism and Net Ecosystem CO2 Balance in Short- and Long-Hydroperiod Subtropical Freshwater Wetlandsnull (Ed.)Abstract How aquatic primary productivity influences the carbon (C) sequestering capacity of wetlands is uncertain. We evaluated the magnitude and variability in aquatic C dynamics and compared them to net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration ( R eco ) rates within calcareous freshwater wetlands in Everglades National Park. We continuously recorded 30-min measurements of dissolved oxygen (DO), water level, water temperature ( T water ), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). These measurements were coupled with ecosystem CO 2 fluxes over 5 years (2012–2016) in a long-hydroperiod peat-rich, freshwater marsh and a short-hydroperiod, freshwater marl prairie. Daily net aquatic primary productivity (NAPP) rates indicated both wetlands were generally net heterotrophic. Gross aquatic primary productivity (GAPP) ranged from 0 to − 6.3 g C m −2 day −1 and aquatic respiration ( R Aq ) from 0 to 6.13 g C m −2 day −1 . Nonlinear interactions between water level, T water , and GAPP and R Aq resulted in high variability in NAPP that contributed to NEE. Net aquatic primary productivity accounted for 4–5% of the deviance explained in NEE rates. With respect to the flux magnitude, daily NAPP was a greater proportion of daily NEE at the long-hydroperiod sitemore »
Climate change has altered global precipitation patterns and has led to greater variation in hydrological conditions. Wetlands are important globally for their soil carbon storage. Given that wetland carbon processes are primarily driven by hydrology, a comprehensive understanding of the effect of inundation is needed. In this study, we evaluated the effect of water level (WL) and inundation duration (ID) on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes by analysing a 10‐year (2008–2017) eddy covariance dataset from a seasonally inundated freshwater marl prairie in the Everglades National Park. Both gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) rates showed declines under inundation. While GPP rates decreased almost linearly as WL and ID increased, ER rates were less responsive to WL increase beyond 30 cm and extended inundation periods. The unequal responses between GPP and ER caused a weaker net ecosystem CO2sink strength as inundation intensity increased. Eventually, the ecosystem tended to become a net CO2source on a daily basis when either WL exceeded 46 cm or inundation lasted longer than 7 months. Particularly, with an extended period of high‐WLs in 2016 (i.e., WL remained >40 cm for >9 months), the ecosystem became a CO2source, as opposed to being a sink or neutral for CO2in other years. Furthermore,more »
We may be able to buffer biodiversity against the effects of ongoing climate change by prioritizing the protection of habitat with diverse physical features (high geodiversity) associated with ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that maintain high biodiversity. Nonetheless, the relationships between biodiversity and habitat vary with spatial and biological context. In this study, we compare how well habitat geodiversity (spatial variation in abiotic processes and features) and climate explain biodiversity patterns of birds and trees. We also evaluate the consistency of biodiversity–geodiversity relationships across ecoregions.
Birds and trees.
We quantified geodiversity with remotely sensed data and generated biodiversity maps from the Forest Inventory and Analysis and Breeding Bird Survey datasets. We fitted multivariate regressions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity, accounting for spatial autocorrelation among Nature Conservancy ecoregions and relationships among taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional biodiversity. We fitted models including climate alone (temperature and precipitation), geodiversity alone (topography, soil and geology) and climate plus geodiversity.
A combination of geodiversity and climate predictor variables fitted most forms of bird and tree biodiversity with < 10% relative error. Models using geodiversity and climate performed better for local (alpha) and regional (gamma) diversity than for turnover‐based (beta) diversity. Amongmore »
Although climatic predictors tended to have larger individual effects than geodiversity, adding geodiversity improved climate‐only models of biodiversity. Geodiversity was correlated with biodiversity more consistently than with climate across ecoregions, but models tended to have a poor fit in ecoregions held out of the training dataset. Patterns of geodiversity could help to prioritize conservation efforts within ecoregions. However, we need to understand the underlying mechanisms more fully before we can build models transferable across ecoregions.
Geodiversity (i.e., the variation in Earth's abiotic processes and features) has strong effects on biodiversity patterns. However, major gaps remain in our understanding of how relationships between biodiversity and geodiversity vary over space and time. Biodiversity data are globally sparse and concentrated in particular regions. In contrast, many forms of geodiversity can be measured continuously across the globe with satellite remote sensing. Satellite remote sensing directly measures environmental variables with grain sizes as small as tens of metres and can therefore elucidate biodiversity–geodiversity relationships across scales.
We show how one important geodiversity variable, elevation, relates to alpha, beta and gamma taxonomic diversity of trees across spatial scales. We use elevation from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and
c. 16,000 Forest Inventory and Analysis plots to quantify spatial scaling relationships between biodiversity and geodiversity with generalized linear models (for alpha and gamma diversity) and beta regression (for beta diversity) across five spatial grains ranging from 5 to 100 km. We illustrate different relationships depending on the form of diversity; beta and gamma diversity show the strongest relationship with variation in elevation. Conclusion
With the onset of climate change, it is more important than ever to examine geodiversity for its potential to foster biodiversity.more »
Harnessing the NEON data revolution to advance open environmental science with a diverse and data‐capable community
It is a critical time to reflect on the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) science to date as well as envision what research can be done right now with NEON (and other) data and what training is needed to enable a diverse user community. NEON became fully operational in May 2019 and has pivoted from planning and construction to operation and maintenance. In this overview, the history of and foundational thinking around NEON are discussed. A framework of open science is described with a discussion of how NEON can be situated as part of a larger data constellation—across existing networks and different suites of ecological measurements and sensors. Next, a synthesis of early NEON science, based on >100 existing publications, funded proposal efforts, and emergent science at the very first NEON Science Summit (hosted by Earth Lab at the University of Colorado Boulder in October 2019) is provided. Key questions that the ecology community will address with NEON data in the next 10 yr are outlined, from understanding drivers of biodiversity across spatial and temporal scales to defining complex feedback mechanisms in human–environmental systems. Last, the essential elements needed to engage and support a diverse and inclusive NEON user communitymore »