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  1. Hyperpolarization of 13 C-pyruvate via Signal Amplificaton By Reversibble Exchange (SABRE) is an important recent discovery because of both the relative simplicity of hyperpolarization and the central biological relevance of pyruvate as a biomolecular probe for in vitro or in vivo studies. Here, we analyze the [1,2- 13 C 2 ]pyruvate-SABRE spin system and its field dependence theoretically and experimentally. We provide first-principles analysis of the governing 4-spin dihydride- 13 C 2 Hamiltonian and numerical spin dynamics simulations of the 7-spin dihydride- 13 C 2 –CH 3 system. The analytical and the numerical results are compared to matching systematic experiments. With these methods we unravel the observed spin state mixing of singlet states and triplet states at microTesla fields and we also analyze the dynamics during transfer from micro-Tesla field to high field for detection to understand the resulting spectra from the [1,2- 13 C 2 ]pyruvate-SABRE system. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange in SHield Enabled Alignment Transfer (SABRE‐SHEATH) is investigated to achieve rapid hyperpolarization of13C1spins of [1‐13C]pyruvate, using parahydrogen as the source of nuclear spin order. Pyruvate exchange with an iridium polarization transfer complex can be modulated via a sensitive interplay between temperature and co‐ligation of DMSO and H2O. Order‐unity13C (>50 %) polarization of catalyst‐bound [1‐13C]pyruvate is achieved in less than 30 s by restricting the chemical exchange of [1‐13C]pyruvate at lower temperatures. On the catalyst bound pyruvate, 39 % polarization is measured using a 1.4 T NMR spectrometer, and extrapolated to >50 % at the end of build‐up in situ. The highest measured polarization of a 30‐mM pyruvate sample, including free and bound pyruvate is 13 % when using 20 mM DMSO and 0.5 M water in CD3OD. Efficient13C polarization is also enabled by favorable relaxation dynamics in sub‐microtesla magnetic fields, as indicated by fast polarization buildup rates compared to theT1spin‐relaxation rates (e. g., ∼0.2 s−1versus ∼0.1 s−1, respectively, for a 6 mM catalyst‐[1‐13C]pyruvate sample). Finally, the catalyst‐bound hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate can be released rapidly by cycling the temperature and/or by optimizing the amount of water, paving the way to future biomedical applications of hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate produced via comparatively fast and simple SABRE‐SHEATH‐based approaches.

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