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  1. We present high-resolution millimeter continuum ALMA observations of the disks around the T Tauri stars LkCa 15 and 2MASS J16100501-2132318 (hereafter, J1610). These transition disks host dust-depleted inner regions, which have possibly been carved by massive planets, and they are of prime interest to the study of the imprints of planet-disk interactions. While at moderate angular resolution, they appear as a broad ring surrounding a cavity, the continuum emission resolves into multiple rings at a resolution of ~60 × 40 mas (~7.5 au for LkCa 15, ~6 au for J1610) and ~7 μ Jy beam −1 rms at 1.3 mm. In addition to a broad extended component, LkCa 15 and J1610 host three and two narrow rings, respectively, with two bright rings in LkCa 15 being radially resolved. LkCa 15 possibly hosts another faint ring close to the outer edge of the mm emission. The rings look marginally optically thick, with peak optical depths of ~0.5 (neglecting scattering), in agreement with high angular resolution observations of full disks. We performed hydrodynamical simulations with an embedded, sub-Jovian-mass planet and show that the observed multi-ringed substructure can be qualitatively explained as the outcome of the planet-disk interaction. We note, however, that the choice of the disk cooling timescale alone can significantly impact the resulting gas and dust distributions around the planet, leading to different numbers of rings and gaps and different spacings between them. We propose that the massive outer disk regions of transition disks are favorable places for planetesimals, and possibly second-generation planet formation of objects with a lower mass than the planets carving the inner cavity (typically few M Jup ), and that the annular substructures observed in LkCa 15 and J1610 may be indicative of planetary core formation within dust-rich pressure traps. Current observations are compatible with other mechanisms contributing to the origin of the observed substructures, in particular with regard to narrow rings generated (or facilitated) at the edge of the CO and N 2 snowlines. 
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  2. Context . The Gl 486 system consists of a very nearby, relatively bright, weakly active M3.5 V star at just 8 pc with a warm transiting rocky planet of about 1.3 R ⊕ and 3.0 M ⊕ . It is ideal for both transmission and emission spectroscopy and for testing interior models of telluric planets. Aims . To prepare for future studies, we aim to thoroughly characterise the planetary system with new accurate and precise data collected with state-of-the-art photometers from space and spectrometers and interferometers from the ground. Methods . We collected light curves of seven new transits observed with the CHEOPS space mission and new radial velocities obtained with MAROON-X at the 8.1 m Gemini North telescope and CARMENES at the 3.5 m Calar Alto telescope, together with previously published spectroscopic and photometric data from the two spectrographs and TESS. We also performed near-infrared interferometric observations with the CHARA Array and new photometric monitoring with a suite of smaller telescopes (AstroLAB, LCOGT, OSN, TJO). This extraordinary and rich data set was the input for our comprehensive analysis. Results . From interferometry, we measure a limb-darkened disc angular size of the star Gl 486 at θ LDD = 0.390 ± 0.018 mas. Together with a corrected Gaia EDR3 parallax, we obtain a stellar radius R * = 0.339 ± 0.015 R ⊕ . We also measure a stellar rotation period at P rot = 49.9 ± 5.5 days, an upper limit to its XUV (5-920 A) flux informed by new Hubble /STIS data, and, for the first time, a variety of element abundances (Fe, Mg, Si, V, Sr, Zr, Rb) and C/O ratio. Moreover, we imposed restrictive constraints on the presence of additional components, either stellar or sub-stellar, in the system. With the input stellar parameters and the radial-velocity and transit data, we determine the radius and mass of the planet Gl 486 b at R p = 1.343 −0.062 +0.063 R ⊕ and M p = 3.00 −0.12 +0.13 M ⊕ , with relative uncertainties of the planet radius and mass of 4.7% and 4.2%, respectively. From the planet parameters and the stellar element abundances, we infer the most probable models of planet internal structure and composition, which are consistent with a relatively small metallic core with respect to the Earth, a deep silicate mantle, and a thin volatile upper layer. With all these ingredients, we outline prospects for Gl 486 b atmospheric studies, especially with forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( Webb ) observations. 
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  3. ABSTRACT Dippers are a common class of young variable star exhibiting day-long dimmings with depths of up to several tens of per cent. A standard explanation is that dippers host nearly edge-on (id ≈ 70°) protoplanetary discs that allow close-in (<1 au) dust lifted slightly out of the mid-plane to partially occult the star. The identification of a face-on dipper disc and growing evidence of inner disc misalignments brings this scenario into question. Thus, we uniformly (re)derive the inclinations of 24 dipper discs resolved with (sub-)mm interferometry from ALMA. We find that dipper disc inclinations are consistent with an isotropic distribution over id ≈ 0−75°, above which the occurrence rate declines (likely an observational selection effect due to optically thick disc mid-planes blocking their host stars). These findings indicate that the dipper phenomenon is unrelated to the outer (>10 au) disc resolved by ALMA and that inner disc misalignments may be common during the protoplanetary phase. More than one mechanism may contribute to the dipper phenomenon, including accretion-driven warps and ‘broken’ discs caused by inclined (sub-)stellar or planetary companions. 
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  4. ABSTRACT

    We report the discovery of two warm sub-Neptunes transiting the bright (G = 9.5 mag) K-dwarf HD 15906 (TOI 461, TIC 4646810). This star was observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) in sectors 4 and 31, revealing two small transiting planets. The inner planet, HD 15906 b, was detected with an unambiguous period but the outer planet, HD 15906 c, showed only two transits separated by ∼ 734 d, leading to 36 possible values of its period. We performed follow-up observations with the CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) to confirm the true period of HD 15906 c and improve the radius precision of the two planets. From TESS, CHEOPS, and additional ground-based photometry, we find that HD 15906 b has a radius of 2.24 ± 0.08 R⊕ and a period of 10.924709 ± 0.000032 d, whilst HD 15906 c has a radius of 2.93$^{+0.07}_{-0.06}$ R⊕ and a period of 21.583298$^{+0.000052}_{-0.000055}$ d. Assuming zero bond albedo and full day-night heat redistribution, the inner and outer planet have equilibrium temperatures of 668 ± 13 K and 532 ± 10 K, respectively. The HD 15906 system has become one of only six multiplanet systems with two warm (≲ 700 K) sub-Neptune sized planets transiting a bright star (G ≤ 10 mag). It is an excellent target for detailed characterization studies to constrain the composition of sub-Neptune planets and test theories of planet formation and evolution.

     
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  5. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    A search for pair production of squarks or gluinos decaying via sleptons or weak bosons is reported. The search targets a final state with exactly two leptons with same-sign electric charge or at least three leptons without any charge requirement. The analysed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb1of proton-proton collisions collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Multiple signal regions are defined, targeting several SUSY simplified models yielding the desired final states. A single control region is used to constrain the normalisation of theWZ+ jets background. No significant excess of events over the Standard Model expectation is observed. The results are interpreted in the context of several supersymmetric models featuring R-parity conservation or R-parity violation, yielding exclusion limits surpassing those from previous searches. In models considering gluino (squark) pair production, gluino (squark) masses up to 2.2 (1.7) TeV are excluded at 95% confidence level.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  6. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We report on the discovery and validation of TOI 813 b (TIC 55525572 b), a transiting exoplanet identified by citizen scientists in data from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and the first planet discovered by the Planet Hunters TESS project. The host star is a bright (V = 10.3 mag) subgiant ($R_\star =1.94\, R_\odot$, $M_\star =1.32\, M_\odot$). It was observed almost continuously by TESS during its first year of operations, during which time four individual transit events were detected. The candidate passed all the standard light curve-based vetting checks, and ground-based follow-up spectroscopy and speckle imaging enabled us to place an upper limit of $2\, M_{\rm Jup}$ (99 per cent confidence) on the mass of the companion, and to statistically validate its planetary nature. Detailed modelling of the transits yields a period of $83.8911 _{ - 0.0031 } ^ { + 0.0027 }$ d, a planet radius of 6.71 ± 0.38 R⊕ and a semimajor axis of $0.423 _{ - 0.037 } ^ { + 0.031 }$ AU. The planet’s orbital period combined with the evolved nature of the host star places this object in a relatively underexplored region of parameter space. We estimate that TOI 813 b induces a reflex motion in its host star with a semi-amplitude of ∼6 m s−1, making this a promising system to measure the mass of a relatively long-period transiting planet. 
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  7. Abstract On 2019 August 14 at 21:10:39 UTC, the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration (LVC) detected a possible neutron star–black hole merger (NSBH), the first ever identified. An extensive search for an optical counterpart of this event, designated GW190814, was undertaken using the Dark Energy Camera on the 4 m Victor M. Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Target of Opportunity interrupts were issued on eight separate nights to observe 11 candidates using the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope’s Goodman High Throughput Spectrograph in order to assess whether any of these transients was likely to be an optical counterpart of the possible NSBH merger. Here, we describe the process of observing with SOAR, the analysis of our spectra, our spectroscopic typing methodology, and our resultant conclusion that none of the candidates corresponded to the gravitational wave merger event but were all instead other transients. Finally, we describe the lessons learned from this effort. Application of these lessons will be critical for a successful community spectroscopic follow-up program for LVC observing run 4 (O4) and beyond. 
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  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  9. null (Ed.)
    We report the detection of a transiting super-Earth-sized planet ( R = 1.39 ± 0.09 R ⊕ ) in a 1.4-day orbit around L 168-9 (TOI-134), a bright M1V dwarf ( V = 11, K = 7.1) located at 25.15 ± 0.02 pc. The host star was observed in the first sector of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. For confirmation and planet mass measurement purposes, this was followed up with ground-based photometry, seeing-limited and high-resolution imaging, and precise radial velocity (PRV) observations using the HARPS and Magellan /PFS spectrographs. By combining the TESS data and PRV observations, we find the mass of L 168-9 b to be 4.60 ± 0.56 M ⊕ and thus the bulk density to be 1.74 −0.33 +0.44 times higher than that of the Earth. The orbital eccentricity is smaller than 0.21 (95% confidence). This planet is a level one candidate for the TESS mission’s scientific objective of measuring the masses of 50 small planets, and it is one of the most observationally accessible terrestrial planets for future atmospheric characterization. 
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