skip to main content


Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Marcus, D."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 22, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Quantum chemistry must evolve if it wants to fully leverage the benefits of the internet age, where the worldwide web offers a vast tapestry of tools that enable users to communicate and interact with complex data at the speed and convenience of a button press. The Open Chemistry project has developed an open‐source framework that offers an end‐to‐end solution for producing, sharing, and visualizing quantum chemical data interactively on the web using an array of modern tools and approaches. These tools build on some of the best open‐source community projects such as Jupyter for interactive online notebooks, coupled with 3D accelerated visualization, state‐of‐the‐art computational chemistry codes including NWChem and Psi4, and emerging machine learning and data mining tools such as ChemML and ANI. They offer flexible formats to import and export data, along with approaches to compare computational and experimental data.

     
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    A new and highly efficient cathode interlayer material for organic photovoltaics (OPVs) was produced by integrating C60fullerene monomers into ionene polymers. The power of these novel “C60‐ionenes” for interface modification enables the use of numerous high work‐function metals (e.g., silver, copper, and gold) as the cathode in efficient OPV devices. C60‐ionene boosted power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of solar cells, fabricated with silver cathodes, from 2.79 % to 10.51 % for devices with a fullerene acceptor in the active layer, and from 3.89 % to 11.04 % for devices with a non‐fullerene acceptor in the active layer, demonstrating the versatility of this interfacial layer. The introduction of fullerene moieties dramatically improved the conductivity of ionene polymers, affording devices with high efficiency by reducing charge accumulation at the cathode/active layer interface. The power of C60‐ionene to improve electron injection and extraction between metal electrodes and organic semiconductors highlights its promise to overcome energy barriers at the hard‐soft materials interface to the benefit of organic electronics.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    A new and highly efficient cathode interlayer material for organic photovoltaics (OPVs) was produced by integrating C60fullerene monomers into ionene polymers. The power of these novel “C60‐ionenes” for interface modification enables the use of numerous high work‐function metals (e.g., silver, copper, and gold) as the cathode in efficient OPV devices. C60‐ionene boosted power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of solar cells, fabricated with silver cathodes, from 2.79 % to 10.51 % for devices with a fullerene acceptor in the active layer, and from 3.89 % to 11.04 % for devices with a non‐fullerene acceptor in the active layer, demonstrating the versatility of this interfacial layer. The introduction of fullerene moieties dramatically improved the conductivity of ionene polymers, affording devices with high efficiency by reducing charge accumulation at the cathode/active layer interface. The power of C60‐ionene to improve electron injection and extraction between metal electrodes and organic semiconductors highlights its promise to overcome energy barriers at the hard‐soft materials interface to the benefit of organic electronics.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Polymer zwitterions were synthesized by nucleophilic ring‐opening of 3,3′‐(but‐2‐ene‐1,4‐diyl)bis(1,2‐oxathiolane 2,2‐dioxide) (a bis‐sultone) with functional perylene diimide (PDI) or fullerene monomers. Integration of these polymers into solar cell devices as cathode interlayers boosted efficiencies of fullerene‐based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) from 2.75 % to 10.74 %, and of non‐fullerene‐based OPVs from 4.25 % to 10.10 %, demonstrating the versatility of these interlayer materials in OPVs. The fullerene‐containing polymer zwitterion (C60‐PZ) showed a higher interfacial dipole (Δ) value and electron mobility than its PDI counterpart (PDI‐PZ), affording solar cells with high efficiency. The power ofPDI‐PZandC60‐PZto improve electron injection and extraction processes when positioned between metal electrodes and organic semiconductors highlights their promise to overcome energy barriers at the hard‐soft materials interface of organic electronics.

     
    more » « less
  6. Abstract

    Polymer zwitterions were synthesized by nucleophilic ring‐opening of 3,3′‐(but‐2‐ene‐1,4‐diyl)bis(1,2‐oxathiolane 2,2‐dioxide) (a bis‐sultone) with functional perylene diimide (PDI) or fullerene monomers. Integration of these polymers into solar cell devices as cathode interlayers boosted efficiencies of fullerene‐based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) from 2.75 % to 10.74 %, and of non‐fullerene‐based OPVs from 4.25 % to 10.10 %, demonstrating the versatility of these interlayer materials in OPVs. The fullerene‐containing polymer zwitterion (C60‐PZ) showed a higher interfacial dipole (Δ) value and electron mobility than its PDI counterpart (PDI‐PZ), affording solar cells with high efficiency. The power ofPDI‐PZandC60‐PZto improve electron injection and extraction processes when positioned between metal electrodes and organic semiconductors highlights their promise to overcome energy barriers at the hard‐soft materials interface of organic electronics.

     
    more » « less
  7. Abstract

    Solution‐based processing of materials for electrical doping of organic semiconductor interfaces is attractive for boosting the efficiency of organic electronic devices with multilayer structures. To simplify this process, self‐doping perylene diimide (PDI)‐based ionene polymers are synthesized, in which the semiconductor PDI components are embedded together with electrolyte dopants in the polymer backbone. Functionality contained within the PDI monomers suppresses their aggregation, affording self‐doping interlayers with controllable thickness when processed from solution into organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). Optimal results for interfacial self‐doping lead to increased power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of the fullerene‐based OPVs, from 2.62% to 10.64%, and of the nonfullerene‐based OPVs, from 3.34% to 10.59%. These PDI–ionene interlayers enable chemical and morphological control of interfacial doping and conductivity, demonstrating that the conductive channels are crucial for charge transport in doped organic semiconductor films. Using these novel interlayers with efficient doping and high conductivity, both fullerene‐ and nonfullerene‐based OPVs are achieved with PCEs exceeding 9% over interlayer thicknesses ranging from ≈3 to 40 nm.

     
    more » « less
  8. Abstract

    For a large part of earth's history, cyanobacterial mats thrived in low‐oxygen conditions, yet our understanding of their ecological functioning is limited. Extant cyanobacterial mats provide windows into the putative functioning of ancient ecosystems, and they continue to mediate biogeochemical transformations and nutrient transport across the sediment–water interface in modern ecosystems. The structure and function of benthic mats are shaped by biogeochemical processes in underlying sediments. A modern cyanobacterial mat system in a submerged sinkhole of Lake Huron (LH) provides a unique opportunity to explore such sediment–mat interactions. In the Middle Island Sinkhole (MIS), seeping groundwater establishes a low‐oxygen, sulfidic environment in which a microbial mat dominated byPhormidiumandPlanktothrixthat is capable of both anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis, as well as chemosynthesis, thrives. We explored the coupled microbial community composition and biogeochemical functioning of organic‐rich, sulfidic sediments underlying the surface mat. Microbial communities were diverse and vertically stratified to 12 cm sediment depth. In contrast to previous studies, which used low‐throughput or shotgun metagenomic approaches, our high‐throughput 16SrRNAgene sequencing approach revealed extensive diversity. This diversity was present within microbial groups, including putative sulfate‐reducing taxa ofDeltaproteobacteria, some of which exhibited differential abundance patterns in the mats and with depth in the underlying sediments. The biological and geochemical conditions in theMISwere distinctly different from those in typicalLHsediments of comparable depth. We found evidence for active cycling of sulfur, methane, and nutrients leading to high concentrations of sulfide, ammonium, and phosphorus in sediments underlying cyanobacterial mats. Indicators of nutrient availability were significantly related toMISmicrobial community composition, whileLHcommunities were also shaped by indicators of subsurface groundwater influence. These results show that interactions between the mats and sediments are crucial for sustaining this hot spot of biological diversity and biogeochemical cycling.

     
    more » « less