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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. Electrolyte-gated transistors (EGTs) hold great promise for next-generation printed logic circuitry, biocompatible integrated sensors, and neuromorphic devices. However, EGT-based complementary circuits with high voltage gain and ultralow driving voltage (<0.5 V) are currently unrealized, because achieving balanced electrical output for both the p- and n-type EGT components has not been possible with current materials. Here we report high-performance EGT complementary circuits containing p-type organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) fabricated with an ion-permeable organic semiconducting polymer (DPP-g2T) and an n-type electrical double-layer transistor (EDLT) fabricated with an ion-impermeable inorganic indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) semiconductor. Adjusting the IGZO composition enables tunable EDLT output which, for In:Ga:Zn = 10:1:1 at%, balances that of the DPP-g2T OECT. The resulting hybrid electrolyte-gated inverter (HCIN) achieves ultrahigh voltage gains (>110) under a supply voltage of only 0.7 V. Furthermore, NAND and NOR logic circuits on both rigid and flexible substrates are realized, enabling not only excellent logic response with driving voltages as low as 0.2 V but also impressive mechanical flexibility down to 1-mm bending radii. Finally, the HCIN was applied in electrooculographic (EOG) signal monitoring for recording eye movement, which is critical for the development of wearable medical sensors and also interfaces for human–computer interaction; the highmore »voltage amplification of the present HCIN enables EOG signal amplification and monitoring in which a small ∼1.5 mV signal is amplified to ∼30 mV.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 20, 2022
  5. The use of alternative oxidants for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane (ODHP) is a promising strategy to suppress the facile overoxidation to CO x that occurs with O 2 . Gaseous disulfur (S 2 ) represents a thermodynamically “softer” oxidant that has been underexplored and yet offers a potential route to more selective propylene formation. Here we describe a system for sulfur-ODHP (SODHP). We demonstrate that various metal sulfide catalysts generate unique reaction product distributions, and that propylene selectivities as high as 86% can be achieved at 450–550 °C. For a group of 6 metal sulfide catalysts, apparent activation energies for propylene formation range from 72–134 kJ mol −1 and parallel the corresponding catalyst XPS sulfur binding energies, indicating that M–S bond strength plays a key role in SODHP activity. Kinetic data over a sulfided ZrO 2 catalyst indicate a rate law which is first-order in propane and zero-order in sulfur, suggesting that SODHP may occur via a mechanism analogous to the Mars van Krevelen cycle of traditional ODHP. The present results should motivate further studies of SODHP as a route to the selective and efficient oxidative production of propylene.
  6. The oxidative coupling of methane to ethylene using gaseous disulfur (2CH4+ S2→ C2H4+ 2H2S) as an oxidant (SOCM) proceeds with promising selectivity. Here, we report detailed experimental and theoretical studies that examine the mechanism for the conversion of CH4to C2H4over an Fe3O4-derived FeS2catalyst achieving a promising ethylene selectivity of 33%. We compare and contrast these results with those for the highly exothermic oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) using O2(2CH4+ O2→ C2H4+ 2H2O). SOCM kinetic/mechanistic analysis, along with density functional theory results, indicate that ethylene is produced as a primary product of methane activation, proceeding predominantly via CH2coupling over dimeric S–S moieties that bridge Fe surface sites, and to a lesser degree, on heavily sulfided mononuclear sites. In contrast to and unlike OCM, the overoxidized CS2by-product forms predominantly via CH4oxidation, rather than from C2products, through a series of C–H activation and S-addition steps at adsorbed sulfur sites on the FeS2surface. The experimental rates for methane conversion are first order in both CH4and S2, consistent with the involvement of two S sites in the rate-determining methane C–H activation step, with a CD4/CH4kinetic isotope effect of 1.78. The experimental apparent activation energy for methane conversion is 66 ± 8 kJ/mol, significantly lower thanmore »for CH4oxidative coupling with O2. The computed methane activation barrier, rate orders, and kinetic isotope values are consistent with experiment. All evidence indicates that SOCM proceeds via a very different pathway than that of OCM.

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  7. Abstract

    Selective breaking of degenerate energy levels is a well-known tool for coherent manipulation of spin states. Though most simply achieved with magnetic fields, polarization-sensitive optical methods provide high-speed alternatives. Exploiting the optical selection rules of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers, the optical Stark effect allows for ultrafast manipulation of valley-coherent excitons. Compared to excitons in these materials, microcavity exciton-polaritons offer a promising alternative for valley manipulation, with longer lifetimes, enhanced valley coherence, and operation across wider temperature ranges. Here, we show valley-selective control of polariton energies in WS2using the optical Stark effect, extending coherent valley manipulation to the hybrid light-matter regime. Ultrafast pump-probe measurements reveal polariton spectra with strong polarization contrast originating from valley-selective energy shifts. This demonstration of valley degeneracy breaking at picosecond timescales establishes a method for coherent control of valley phenomena in exciton-polaritons.