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  1. ABSTRACT Massive stars are crucial to galactic chemical evolution for elements heavier than iron. Their contribution at early times in the evolution of the Universe, however, is unclear due to poorly constrained nuclear reaction rates. The competing 17O(α, γ)21Ne and 17O(α, n)20Ne reactions strongly impact weak s-process yields from rotating massive stars at low metallicities. Abundant 16O absorbs neutrons, removing flux from the s-process, and producing 17O. The 17O(α, n)20Ne reaction releases neutrons, allowing continued s-process nucleosynthesis, if the 17O(α, γ)21Ne reaction is sufficiently weak. While published rates are available, they are based on limited indirect experimental data for the relevant temperatures and, more importantly, no uncertainties are provided. The available nuclear physics has been evaluated, and combined with data from a new study of astrophysically relevant 21Ne states using the 20Ne(d, p)21Ne reaction. Constraints are placed on the ratio of the (α, n)/(α, γ) reaction rates with uncertainties on the rates provided for the first time. The new rates favour the (α, n) reaction and suggest that the weak s-process in rotating low-metallicity stars is likely to continue up to barium and, within the computed uncertainties, even to lead. 
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  4. Abstract

    Mature super-Earths and sub-Neptunes are predicted to be ≃ Jovian radius when younger than 10 Myr. Thus, we expect to find 5–15Rplanets around young stars even if their older counterparts harbor none. We report the discovery and validation of TOI 1227b, a 0.85 ± 0.05RJ(9.5R) planet transiting a very-low-mass star (0.170 ± 0.015M) every 27.4 days. TOI 1227's kinematics and strong lithium absorption confirm that it is a member of a previously discovered subgroup in the Lower Centaurus Crux OB association, which we designate the Musca group. We derive an age of 11 ± 2 Myr for Musca, based on lithium, rotation, and the color–magnitude diagram of Musca members. The TESS data and ground-based follow-up show a deep (2.5%) transit. We use multiwavelength transit observations and radial velocities from the IGRINS spectrograph to validate the signal as planetary in nature, and we obtain an upper limit on the planet mass of ≃0.5MJ. Because such large planets are exceptionally rare around mature low-mass stars, we suggest that TOI 1227b is still contracting and will eventually turn into one of the more common <5Rplanets.

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  6. Abstract

    Estrogenic signaling is an important focus in studies of gonadal and brain sexual differentiation in fishes and vertebrates generally. This study examined variation in estrogenic signaling (1) across three sexual phenotypes (female, female‐mimic initial phase [IP] male, and terminal phase [TP] male), (2) during socially‐controlled female‐to‐male sex change, and (3) during tidally‐driven spawning cycles in the protogynous bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum). We analyzed relative abundances of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for the brain form of aromatase (cyp19a1b) and the three nuclear estrogen receptors (ER) (ERα, ERβa, andERβb) by qPCR. Consistent with previous reports, forebrain/midbraincyp19a1bwas highest in females, significantly lower in TP males, and lowest in IP males. By contrast,ERαandERβbmRNA abundances were highest in TP males and increased during sex change.ERβamRNA did not vary significantly. Across the tidally‐driven spawning cycle,cyp19a1babundances were higher in females than TP males. Interestingly,cyp19a1blevels were higher in TP males close (~1 h) to the daily spawning period when sexual and aggressive behaviors rise than males far from spawning (~10–12 h). Together with earlier findings, our results suggest alterations in neural estrogen signaling are key regulators of socially‐controlled sex change and sexual phenotype differences. Additionally, these patterns suggest TP male‐typical sociosexual behaviors may depend on intermediate rather than low estrogenic signaling. We discuss these results and the possibility that an inverted‐U shaped relationship between neural estrogen and male‐typical behaviors is more common than presently appreciated.

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  7. Abstract The Pandora Software Development Kit and algorithm libraries provide pattern-recognition logic essential to the reconstruction of particle interactions in liquid argon time projection chamber detectors. Pandora is the primary event reconstruction software used at ProtoDUNE-SP, a prototype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment far detector. ProtoDUNE-SP, located at CERN, is exposed to a charged-particle test beam. This paper gives an overview of the Pandora reconstruction algorithms and how they have been tailored for use at ProtoDUNE-SP. In complex events with numerous cosmic-ray and beam background particles, the simulated reconstruction and identification efficiency for triggered test-beam particles is above 80% for the majority of particle type and beam momentum combinations. Specifically, simulated 1 GeV/ c charged pions and protons are correctly reconstructed and identified with efficiencies of 86.1 $$\pm 0.6$$ ± 0.6 % and 84.1 $$\pm 0.6$$ ± 0.6 %, respectively. The efficiencies measured for test-beam data are shown to be within 5% of those predicted by the simulation. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024